TABLE 2

Descriptive and Bivariate Statistical Analyses of Maternal Characteristics According to Child Aggressive Behavior When Child Was 5 Years of Age

Total Sample (N = 2461)Lower Aggression (n = 1137)Higher Aggression (n = 1324)P
Maternal parenting risks
    Psychological maltreatment of child, no. of incidents in previous year, median (range: 0–115 incidents)251827<.001
    Physical maltreatment of child (spanking not included), no. of incidents in previous year, median (range: 0–108 incidents)12916<.001
    Any neglect of child in previous year, %11.38.114.1<.001
    Victim of intimate partner aggression and/or violence since birth of index child, %53.247.957.8<.001
    Parenting Stress Index score, median (range: 0–44)121113<.001
    Major depression, %21.317.524.6<.001
    Use of drugs and/or alcohol, %16.113.918.0<.01
    Considered aborting this child, %27.725.030.0<.01
Mother and family demographic features
    Male child, %51.947.555.7<.001
    Mother's age, median, y (range: 16–50 y)282826<.001
    Mother's education, %<.001
        Less than high school32.729.435.6<.01
        High school30.628.532.5<.05
        Some college25.628.023.5<.05
        College graduate11.014.18.3<.001
    Mother's race/ethnicity, %NS
        Black50.749.351.9
        Hispanic24.224.424.0
        White21.923.320.6
        Other3.12.93.2
    Mother foreign-born, %12.613.511.7NS
    Mother's religion, %<.05
        Catholic26.427.725.3
        Protestant39.941.338.7
        Other Christian12.712.712.8
        No religious preference17.014.519.1<.01
        Other3.13.13.2
    Mother-father relationship status, %<.001
        Married32.136.628.3<.001
        Cohabiting27.727.128.2
        Visiting29.625.932.8<.001
        No relationship10.610.410.7
    Mother's annual household income, ln $ (range: 0–13.8; actual median: $23 721)10.110.110.0<.001
  • NS indicates not statistically significant. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for continuous variables, because equal-variance assumptions generally were not met; χ2 tests were used for binary and categorical variables. Missing data for each variable equaled <1%.