TABLE 1

Descriptive and Bivariate Statistical Analyses of Maternal Characteristics According to Mother's Use of CP in Month Before Interview When Child Was 3 Years of Age

Total Sample (N = 2461)Did Not Spank (n = 1123)Spanked 1 or 2 Times (n = 686)Spanked ≥3 Times (n = 652)P
Maternal parenting risks
    Psychological maltreatment of child, no. of incidents in previous year, median (range: 0–115 incidents)25162533<.001
    Physical maltreatment of child (spanking not included), no. of incidents in previous year, median (range: 0–108 incidents)1241626<.001
    Any neglect of child in previous year, %11.38.513.314.3<.001
    Victim of intimate partner aggression and/or violence since birth of index child, %53.247.457.958.4<.001
    Parenting Stress Index score, median (range: 0–44)12111313<.001
    Major depression, %21.318.221.426.5<.001
    Use of drugs and/or alcohol, %16.113.016.620.9<.001
    Considered aborting this child, %27.724.829.330.8<.05
Mother and family demographic features
    Male child, %51.948.953.455.5<.05
    Mother's age, median, y (range: 16–50 y)27282726<.001
    Mother's education, %<.01
        Less than high school32.734.934.127.5<.01
        High school30.629.129.234.8<.05
        Some college25.623.926.227.8
        College graduate11.012.110.29.8
    Mother's race/ethnicity, %<.001
        Black50.745.353.656.8<.001
        Hispanic24.229.223.316.4<.001
        White21.921.919.724.1
        Other3.13.23.22.6
    Mother foreign-born, %12.617.510.56.1<.001
    Mother's religion, %<.001
        Catholic26.432.326.815.8<.001
        Protestant39.936.040.246.3<.001
        Other Christian12.711.012.416.1<.01
        No religious preference17.016.616.817.9
        Other3.13.52.92.8
    Mother-father relationship status, %NS
        Married32.133.631.530.4
        Cohabiting27.728.026.728.2
        Visiting29.627.830.931.3
        No relationship10.610.610.910.1
    Mother's annual household income, median, ln $ (range: 0–13.8; actual median: $23 721)10101010NS
  • NS indicates not statistically significant. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for continuous variables, because equal-variance assumptions generally were not met; χ2 tests were used for binary and categorical variables. Missing data for each variable equaled <1%.