TABLE 5.

Social Characteristics

Group DMGroup PFGroup MMGroup DM Versus Groups PF, PGroup MM Versus Combined Groups DM and PF, P
n = 65*n = 72*n = 50*
Maternal age, y, mean ± SD25.4 ± 6.829.0 ± 7.130.2 ± 5.9.006
Single head of household, n (%)23 (35)10 (14)3 (6).003
Mother attended college, n (%)24 (37)33 (46)30 (60).29.026
Household income of >$100,000, n (%)2 (3)2 (4)6 (12).73.032
n = 78§n = 88§n = 70§
Parents visit >50% of hospital stay, n (%)51 (65)63 (72)69 (98).33<.001
Skin-to-skin contact
    Mother, n (%)56 (69)60 (65)65 (93).58<.001
    Father, n (%)21 (26)22 (24)33 (47).79.001
Episodes of maternal skin-to-skin contact, n, mean ± SD5.0 ± 7.55.2 ± 7.711.6 ± 12.6.87<.001
Duration of maternal skin-to-skin contact, min, mean ± SD318 ± 673349 ± 596962 ± 1452.75<.001
  • * Mothers.

  • Group MM versus group DM versus group PF: P = .001; group MM versus group PF: P = .37; group MM versus group DM: P = <.001.

  • Group MM versus group DM versus PF: P < .001; group MM versus group PF: P = .17; group MM versus group DM: P = <.001.

  • § Infants.