TABLE 9.

Antenatal Iodine Supplementation

SourceLocation and Type of TrialInterventionMaternal OutcomePerinatal/Neonatal Outcome
DeLong et al715China; rural setting; RCTPotassium iodate was added to the rivers that were the main source of water for the entire population of intervention villages; control villages used water from rivers without any potassium iodate.Neonatal mortality was reduced by 65% in the population supplemented with iodine (OR: 0.35; CI: 0.18–0.68).
Pharoah et al204,206New Guinea; population- based; QTThe entire population (16 000 individuals in 27 villages) was given injectable iodized oil (4 mL if >12 y of age); however, the follow-up cohort was considerably smaller.Definite cretinism was reduced by 100% in the neonates born to the intervention group (0 of 274 in the intervention group vs 14 of 248 in the control group; χ2 (3 df) = 33.87; P < .001); the 15-y cumulative survival of the children whose mothers received supplementary iodine was significantly greater than the survival of control children (P = .002).
Thilly et al208Zaire; rural setting; PCSPregnant women (n = 109) around 28 wk of gestation attending antenatal clinics in a severely iodine deficient area in Zaire were allocated to either a treatment or control group; the treatment group received 1 iodized oil injection at the time of the first antenatal clinic visit, and the control group received an injection of iodine-free vitamins; there were 118 newborns born to these women during the intervention period.Correlation between infant thyroid function and maternal thyroid function was noticed; treatment with iodized oil significantly improved mean thyroxine serum concentration (15.7 ± 0.7 vs 11.5 ± 0.7 μg/dL in untreated versus treated mothers; P < .001) and lowered mean thyroid-stimulating hormone (5.4 ± 0.5 vs 8.7 ± 1.2 μU/mL; P < .001).Birth weight increased by a mean 101 g (−13.5 to 215.5 g); there was also a trend toward reduced infant mortality (RR: 0.66; CI: 0.44–1.03).