TABLE 4.

Components of Antenatal Care

Condition/InterventionTest/TreatmentExpected Impact on Maternal and Newborn Outcomes
Prevention of anemiaRoutine supplementation with iron and folate during pregnancyPrevents or reduces fall in maternal Hb
Malaria chemoprophylaxisReduces percentage of women who become anemic
Treatment of iron-deficiency anemiaOral iron and folateCan raise maternal Hb by 0.4–0.7 g/dL per wk
Detection and investigation of hypertensive disease of pregnancyMeasurement of blood pressure with sphygmomanometer using fifth Korotkoff soundDetects maternal hypertension and allows selection of cases at higher risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity
Analysis of clean catch urineDetects maternal proteinuria, indicative of pre-eclampsia in the presence of hypertension
Treatment of severe pre-eclampsiaTransfer to first referral level for expert careControl of maternal disease; reduces maternal case fatality
Screening for infectionSerological screening and treatment for syphilisDetects asymptomatic maternal disease; coupled with effective treatment, contact tracing, and follow-up, reduces fetal loss and maternal and infant morbidity
Microbiological screening for gonorrheaDetects asymptomatic maternal disease; coupled with effective treatment, contact tracing, and follow-up, reduces fetal loss and maternal and infant morbidity
Screening for bacteriuria with quantitative culture of urineDetects asymptomatic disease; coupled with effective treatment, prevents pyelonephritis and preterm delivery/LBW
Prevention of infectionTetanus immunization in pregnant and/or child-bearing–age womenPrevents maternal and neonatal tetanus