TABLE 1.

Numbers of Community-Based Trials of Interventions to Improve Perinatal/Neonatal Health in Developing Countries

InterventionNumber of Developing-Country Studies Reviewed In-DepthNumber of Community-Based Studies Reporting Primary Perinatal/Neonatal Health Status Outcomes*Number of Community-Based RCTs Reporting Primary Perinatal/Neonatal Health Status Outcomes*Number of Community-Based Studies Reporting Secondary Perinatal/Neonatal Health Status OutcomesNumber of Community-Based RCTs Reporting Secondary Perinatal/Neonatal Health Status OutcomesNumber of Health System Interventions or Effectiveness Trials
Maternal schooling/health education000000
Antenatal care package(s)311221
Protein supplementation000000
Balanced protein-energy supplementation1232950
Antenatal iron supplementation511430
Periconceptional folate supplementation100000
Antenatal folate supplementation100101
Antenatal iodine supplementation321201
Antenatal vitamin A supplementation6 (1)11110
Antenatal zinc supplementation600440
Multiple micronutrient supplementation5 (3)22430
Malaria chemoprophylaxis or IPT166514112
Malaria prevention using ITNs422441
Deworming4 (1)20200
Syphilis screening and treatment510200
Antibiotics for UTIs and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)211110
Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria000000
Antibiotics for bacterial vaginosis100000
Antibiotics for preterm labor300110
Antibiotics for PPROM400000
TT immunization853001
Clean delivery practices5 (3)5 (3)§2 (2)§001
Maternal pneumococcal immunization100000
Promotion of smoking cessation in pregnancy000000
Maternal care packages211000
Maternal vaginal and newborn skin antisepsis200000
Newborn resuscitation1381200
Delayed umbilical cord clamping100000
Umbilical cord antisepsis44§3§000
Prevention and management of neonatal hypothermia400310
Prevention and management of hypoglycemia200000
Breastfeeding1330330
Prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum200000
Vitamin K prophylaxis000000
Hepatitis B vaccination700700
Neonatal vitamin A supplementation322000
KMC910000
Topical emollient therapy200000
Hyperbilirubinemia screening500000
TBA/CHW training14 (7)12 (7)4 (1)300
Pneumonia case management421201
Neonatal care packages10 (4)8 (4)4 (2)210
Care in peripheral health facilities930001
Cost-effectiveness studies6 (2)4 (2)2 (2)100
Totals1866431744010
  • * Primary perinatal/neonatal outcomes included in this count were stillbirth rate, PMR, and NMR.

  • Secondary perinatal/neonatal outcomes included in this count were preterm births, LBW and VLBW births, birth length, head/chest circumference, SGA/large-for-gestational-age births, neonatal weight gain, diarrheal infections, respiratory infections, congenital syphilis, ophthalmia neonatorum, NTDs, HIV infection, sepsis/infections, anemia, impetigo, HBV carrier rate, fetal/neonatal malaria, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and breastfeeding rates.

  • The numbers of studies in parentheses are repeated in earlier tables and are not considered in the totals.

  • § Tetanus infection rate was used as a proxy outcome for tetanus-attributable neonatal case fatality.

  • Eight smoking-cessation studies were reviewed but not counted in the study total because they were all from developed countries.