Exa mples of Major Health-Focused Longitudinal Databases: United States

Name of Study, Lead AgencyInitial SampleFollow-up
Alameda County Study,99NIA6928 noninstitutionalized Alameda County residents, aged >21 y at entry in 1965 (>16 y if married)1965, 1974, 1994, and 1995
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA),100 NHLBI5115 black and white men and women aged 18–30 y at entry in 1986, in 4 major US cities7 waves over 20 y
Framingham Heart Study,101 NHLBIOriginal cohort: 5209 men and women aged 30–62 y in 1948 in Framingham, MA; offspring (1971): 5124 adult children and spouses in 1971; third generation (2005): 4095 adult grandchildren of original participantsEvery 2 y until present
Health and Retirement Study (HRS),102 NIA>22 000 men and women aged ≥50 y in 1988Biennially to present
Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS),103 NIA7000 men and women aged 25–74 y in 1995 (MIDUS I)Second wave ∼ 10 y later (MIDUS II)
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health),104 NICHD∼90 000 students in grades 7–12 in 1994 at 145 schools; more than ∼20 000 students and their parents interviewed at homeReinterviewed at ages 18–26 and 24–32 y
Nurses’ Health Study (NHS),105 NIHOriginal cohort: ∼122 000 married registered nurses, aged 30–55 y in 1976; NHS II: 116 686 women aged 25–42 y in 1989Biennially to present
  • NIA indicates National Institute on Aging; NHLBI, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; NICHD, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; NIH, National Institutes of Health.