APPENDIX 3

Patient and Provider Characteristics Associated With Codeine Prescription During Pediatric Emergency Department Visits for Cough or URI

CharacteristicNo. of Unweighted ED Visit Records With Codeine Rx (N = 56 375)Weighted Proportion of Visits With Codeine Rx, %P2)Adjusted OR (95% CI) for Codeine RxaP (Adjusted OR)
URI/cough visits with codeine Rx3152.8
Year3152.8.690.96 (0.91–1.01).125
Age group (y)
 3 to 71292.4Reference
 8 to 12913.1.101.28 (0.91–1.80).15
 13 to 17953.31.40 (0.99–1.97).052
Gender
 Male1703.0.36Reference
 Female1452.60.90 (0.67–1.20).47
Race/ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic1723.1Reference
 Black, non-Hispanic572.0.120.83 (0.58–1.18).29
 Hispanic633.11.04 (0.70–1.56).83
 Other113.00.93 (0.44–1.97).85
Payment source
 Private insurance1263.0Reference
 Medicaid1542.8.361.02 (0.73–1.42).90
 Other95.60.71 (0.38–1.32).28
US census region
 Northeast371.8Reference
 Midwest913.3<.0011.87 (1.15–3.09).01
 South972.11.16 (0.73–1.86).53
 West905.13.00 (1.92–4.65)<.0001
Type of provider
 Physician2922.8Reference
 Resident/trainee physician51.3.540.35 (0.11–1.08).07
 Nurse practitioner/physician assistant132.81.00 (0.54–1.87).99
 Otherb51.80.70 (0.21–2.32).56
Metropolitan statistical areac
 Metropolitan2612.8.75Reference
 Nonmetropolitan542.91.13 (0.75–1.70).55
  • CI, 95% confidence interval; ED, emergency department; Rx, prescription.

  • a Logistic regression analysis using survey weights with the following variables included in the model: year, age, gender, race/ethnicity, payment source, US census region, and type of provider.

  • b “Other” providers included unlicensed and missing or unknown provider types.

  • c Metropolitan statistical area reflects whether a provider was practicing in an urban or non-urban setting.