TABLE 5

Multivariate Regression Analysis for Any Difficulty Understanding OTC Medication Labels, With and Without Health Literacy Level

Model 1 (Without Health Literacy)aModel 2 (Inclusion of Health Literacy)b
aORc95% CIdPaORc95% CIdP
Age
    16–18 y1.0.41.0.3
    19–24 y1.40.2–13.51.00.1–12.3
    25–39 y0.70.1–5.70.50.1–4.7
    40–49 y0.90.1–7.60.60.1–6.4
    50–64 y0.70.1–5.50.40.04–4.10
    ≥65 ye
Gender
    Female1.0.41.0.2
    Male1.10.8–1.71.20.9–1.8
Education
    In school3.1f1.0–9.6<.0012.00.7–5.5.2
    <High school2.9f1.9–4.41.8f1.02–3.00
    High school/equivalent1.7f1.0–3.01.40.8–2.7
    >High school1.01.0
Race/ethnicity
    White, non-Hispanic1.0.041.0.0501
    Black, non-Hispanic0.50.2–1.70.50.1–1.5
    Hispanic1.50.7–3.11.30.6–3.0
    Other2.00.8–5.02.20.7–6.7
Country of birth
    US1.0<.0011.0<.001
    Outside of US8.4f3.5–20.46.8f2.6–18.1
Income
    Below poverty threshold2.0f1.3–3.2.021.71.0–2.7.08
    100%–175% of poverty threshold1.50.9–2.61.40.8–2.3
    >175% of poverty threshold1.01.0
    Missing2.50.9–6.52.5f1.0–6.2
Region
    Northeast1.0.61.0.5
    Midwest1.20.5–2.91.20.5–3.1
    South0.90.5–1.50.80.5–1.4
    West0.70.4–1.30.70.4–1.3
MSA
    Urban1.0.051.0.08
    Rural0.40.2–1.00.40.2–1.1
Health literacy
    Below basic3.4f1.6–7.4<.001
    Basic1.10.4–2.5
    Intermediate/proficientg1.0
  • English proficiency was left out of the model because this question only assessed for those who learned at least 1 language other than English before starting school and stated that they do not read English “very well.” MSA indicates metropolitan statistical area.

  • a Overall test of fit for model 1 (Wald's χ2 = 132.8; df = 19; P < .001).

  • b Overall test of fit for model 2 (Wald's χ2 = 144.2; df = 21; P < .001).

  • c aOR for each category within each factor compared to the reference group.

  • d 95% CI for each aOR.

  • e No parents in the ≥65 age group who answered this question.

  • f Wald's test with aOR significantly different from reference group at a P < .05 significance level.

  • g Intermediate/proficient categorized together, because only 1.4% of those eligible to answer this question were in the proficient category.