PAFs for Prenatal Tobacco Exposure and Childhood Lead Exposure for ADHD in US Children

CharacteristicProportion of Patients With ADHD Exposed, Estimate (95% CI), %AORaPAF, Estimate (95% CI), %aExcess Casesa
Prenatal smoke exposure37.7 (31.8–44.2)2.421.7 (12.1–27.6)510 000
Blood lead level in third tertile44.3 (37.9–50.7)2.325.4 (13.9–32.5)598 000
Prenatal smoke exposure and/or blood lead level in third tertile58.4 (51.7–64.5)2.938.2 (22.5–47.0)900 000
Prenatal smoke exposure and blood lead level in third tertile24.4 (19.3–30.5)8.121.4 (17.4–23.1)504 000
  • Subjects with ADHD met DSM-IV criteria for any ADHD subtype.

  • a Models were adjusted for current household smoke exposure, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, preschool attendance, mother's age at child's birth, and birth weight.