TABLE 4

Contrasts Derived From Multinomial Regressions Between Joint Nighttime Sleep Duration and Hyperactivity Trajectories in Early Childhood

VariableFirst Contrast, Short NT + High HYPa vs Referencee (n = 50 vs 1356)Second Contrast, Long NT + High HYPb vs Referencee (n = 205 vs 1356)Third Contrast, Short-P NT + Low HYPc vs Referencee (n = 68 vs 1356)Fourth Contrast, Short-I NT + Low HYPd vs Referencee (n = 50 vs 1356)
OR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)P
Child characteristic
    Boy2.3 (1.3–4.3).0012.2 (1.6–3.0)<.0011.0 (0.6–2.0).891.1 (0.6–2.0).73
    Difficult temperament1.7 (0.9–3.4).131.2 (0.8–1.8).381.7 (0.9–3.0).101.2 (0.6–2.5).65
    ≥1 awakening per night0.9 (0.5–1.7).861.2 (0.8–1.6).371.3 (0.7–2.1).402.4 (1.3–4.5).006
Maternal and family characteristic
    Immigrant status0.8 (0.3–2.2).680.6 (0.3–1.2).150.7 (0.3–1.5).361.0 (0.4–2.6).94
    Low education2.1 (1.1–4.1).031.1 (0.8–1.7).521.4 (0.8–2.7).261.6 (0.8–1.7).18
    Depression status1.2 (0.6–2.2).611.4 (1.0–1.9).061.0 (0.6–1.8).971.2 (0.6–2.2).67
    Antisocial characteristic1.0 (0.5–2.0).971.4 (1.0–2.0).050.8 (0.4–1.6).270.6 (0.3–1.4).62
    Insufficient income2.7 (1.4–5.2).0041.6 (1.1–2.3).022.3 (1.3–4.1).0051.1 (0.5–2.4).73
    Maternal smoking during pregnancy1.0 (0.5–1.9).921.8 (1.3–2.4).0010.8 (0.4–1.4).400.9 (0.5–1.9).87
Parental behavior
    At sleep onset (eg, not falling asleep by himself)0.9 (0.4–1.7).670.7 (0.5–1.1).081.5 (0.9–2.7).141.2 (0.6–2.2).65
    Sleeping arrangement (eg, cosleeping/alone)1.0 (0.5–1.9).891.2 (0.8–1.7).411.9 (1.1–3.4).021.1 (0.5–2.1).84
During night awakenings
        Comforting outside bed/Comforting in bed2.0 (1.0–3.9).041.1 (0.8–1.6).521.1 (0.6–2.1).701.2 (0.7–2.1).51
        No awakening/Comforting in bed1.2 (0.4–3.3).781.2 (0.8–2.0).370.4 (0.1–1.5).360.5 (0.1–2.2).18
    Overprotectiveness1.5 (0.8–2.7).201.1 (0.8–1.5).611.3 (0.8–2.3).272.3 (1.3–4.1).007
  • NT indicates nighttime sleep duration; HYP, hyperactivity.

  • a Includes short nighttime sleepers (persistent/increasing) with high hyperactivity scores.

  • b Includes long nighttime sleepers (10/11 hours) with high hyperactivity scores.

  • c Includes short-persistent nighttime sleepers with low/moderate hyperactivity scores.

  • d Includes short-increasing nighttime sleepers with low/moderate hyperactivity scores.

  • e Includes long nighttime sleepers (10/11 hours) with low/moderate hyperactivity scores (reference group).

  • Data are courtesy of the Quebec Institute of Statistics.