TABLE 5

Witnessing and Indirect Victimization: Victims as Percentages of the Sample

Victimization TypePY VictimizationsLifetime Victimizations
All VictimsVictim Gender, %Victim Age, %All VictimsVictim Gender, %Victim Age, %
%95% CIMaleFemale0–1 y2–5 y6–9 y10–13 y14–17 y%95% CIMaleFemale2–5 y6–9 y10–13 y14–17 y
Any witness violencea25.31.526.124.610.5b13.8b13.7b33.0b47.6b37.81.740.1b35.4b21.2b24.7b47.5b70.2b
Any witness family assault9.81.19.010.77.6b9.6b6.4b11.0b10.1b20.31.419.621.115.8b15.6b21.2b34.6b
Witness partner assault6.20.85.76.84.6b7.0b4.5b7.7b6.6b16.31.315.617.013.5b13.1b16.6b27.0b
Witness physical abuse2.10.51.92.30.7b2.5b1.0b2.4b3.2b4.90.85.14.73.6b2.5b4.6b10.7b
Witness other family assault3.10.63.13.23.2b2.7b2.1b2.5b5.2b5.90.85.76.14.2b4.4b4.6b11.6b
Witness assault in community19.21.420.417.95.8b8.5b27.0b42.2b28.71.631.0b26.2b9.0b13.8b39.0b64.2b
Witness murder0.50.20.60.30.4c0.2c0.1b,c0.3b,c1.3b,c1.20.41.31.10.3b0.5b0.8b3.8b
Exposure to shooting5.30.85.45.11.9b2.2b3.1b7.2b10.2b9.61.09.79.63.7b5.1b11.1b22.2b
Exposure to war0.70.31.0b0.4b0.4b0.2b0.3b0.3b2.1b1.40.51.51.40.5b0.4b1.6b3.6b
Any indirect exposure to violenced10.31.09.710.93.5b4.1b11.7b25.3b21.91.521.722.26.6b13.6b25.0b51.1b
Indirect exposure to family assault0.8.30.4b1.1b0.30.61.21.22.90.62.73.21.7b2.4b3.1b5.7b
Indirect exposure to
    community violence9.71.09.310.23.2b3.6b11.0b24.5b20.61.520.021.24.8b11.6b23.7b50.3b
Other indirect exposure
    Household theft7.10.97.46.75.86.37.18.819.11.420.317.99.9b16.9b19.6b35.5b
    School threat of bomb or attack5.11.06.87.10.8b,e1.0b6.3b15.4b9.31.311.713.72.0b,e2.5b10.7b27.8b
  • Sample N = 4549 (male, 2273, female, 2276; 0–1 year, 503; 2–5 years, 1047; 6–9 years, 904; 10–13 years, 920; 14–17 years, 1175).

  • a Excludes indirect exposure to victimization.

  • b Values within each measurement set are significantly different at P < .05.

  • c Too small for χ2 evaluation.

  • d Excludes witnessing violence, household theft, and school threat of bomb or attack.

  • e Includes 5-year-olds only.