Witnessing and Indirect Victimization: Victims as Percentages of the Sample

Victimization TypePY VictimizationsLifetime Victimizations
All VictimsVictim Gender, %Victim Age, %All VictimsVictim Gender, %Victim Age, %
%95% CIMaleFemale0–1 y2–5 y6–9 y10–13 y14–17 y%95% CIMaleFemale2–5 y6–9 y10–13 y14–17 y
Any witness violencea25.31.526.124.610.5b13.8b13.7b33.0b47.6b37.81.740.1b35.4b21.2b24.7b47.5b70.2b
Any witness family assault9.
Witness partner assault6.
Witness physical abuse2.
Witness other family assault3.
Witness assault in community19.21.420.417.95.8b8.5b27.0b42.2b28.71.631.0b26.2b9.0b13.8b39.0b64.2b
Witness murder0.,c0.3b,c1.3b,c1.
Exposure to shooting5.
Exposure to war0.70.31.0b0.4b0.4b0.2b0.3b0.3b2.1b1.
Any indirect exposure to violenced10.31.09.710.93.5b4.1b11.7b25.3b21.91.521.722.26.6b13.6b25.0b51.1b
Indirect exposure to family assault0.8.30.4b1.1b0.
Indirect exposure to
    community violence9.71.09.310.23.2b3.6b11.0b24.5b20.61.520.021.24.8b11.6b23.7b50.3b
Other indirect exposure
    Household theft7.
    School threat of bomb or attack5.,e1.0b6.3b15.4b9.31.311.713.72.0b,e2.5b10.7b27.8b
  • Sample N = 4549 (male, 2273, female, 2276; 0–1 year, 503; 2–5 years, 1047; 6–9 years, 904; 10–13 years, 920; 14–17 years, 1175).

  • a Excludes indirect exposure to victimization.

  • b Values within each measurement set are significantly different at P < .05.

  • c Too small for χ2 evaluation.

  • d Excludes witnessing violence, household theft, and school threat of bomb or attack.

  • e Includes 5-year-olds only.