TABLE 3

aORs With 95% CIs Used to Predict Suicide Behavior by Gender Identity Group

FemaleMaleTransgender, Male to FemaleTransgender, Female to MaleTransgender, Not Exclusively Male or FemaleQuestioning
Age1.01 (1.00–1.02)1.04 (1.03–1.04)a0.95 (0.84–1.07)0.98 (0.88–1.10)0.99 (0.91–1.08)0.98 (0.94–1.03)
Parent education0.91 (0.90–0.92)a0.93 (0.92–0.94)a1.03 (0.90–1.17)0.96 (0.84–1.10)0.94 (0.85–1.03)0.90 (0.85–0.95)a
Urbanicityb0.95 (0.92–0.98)0.93 (0.89–0.96)a1.35 (0.80–2.27)0.98 (0.55–1.75)1.04 (0.73–1.50)0.83 (0.65–1.06)
Sexual orientationc
 Mostly heterosexual1.75 (1.67–1.83)a1.74 (1.63–1.87)a2.44 (1.16–5.13)2.55 (1.10–5.89)0.75 (0.41–1.37)1.14 (0.88–1.47)
 Bisexual3.05 (2.90–3.20)a2.70 (2.46–2.97)a2.47 (1.39–4.39)3.33 (1.72–6.43)a1.46 (0.88–2.43)1.69 (1.33–2.16)a
 Mostly lesbian or gay2.60 (2.26–2.99)a2.03 (1.67–2.45)a3.19 (1.69–6.05)a2.89 (1.38–6.02)1.46 (0.84–2.54)2.01 (1.43–2.83)a
 Only lesbian or gay2.48 (2.12–2.89)a2.14 (1.87–2.44)a3.75 (1.87–7.51)a3.65 (1.76–7.59)a1.38 (0.78–2.42)1.81 (1.26–2.58)a
Race and/or ethnicityd
 American Indian or Alaskan native1.45 (1.28–1.64)a1.30 (1.15–1.47)a2.04 (0.84–4.95)0.79 (0.22–2.88)1.19 (0.57–2.50)1.02 (0.67–1.56)
 Asian American1.00 (0.95–1.05)1.09 (1.03–1.16)0.76 (0.34–1.70)0.78 (0.39–1.53)0.73 (0.44–1.20)0.90 (0.65–1.24)
 Black or African American1.20 (1.14–1.26)a1.24 (1.17–1.32)a1.16 (0.50–2.69)0.72 (0.28–1.83)1.06 (0.60–1.88)0.96 (0.66–1.39)
 Hispanic or Latino1.45 (1.39–1.50)a1.34 (1.27–1.40)a1.53 (0.73–3.20)0.87 (0.41–1.85)1.18 (0.66–2.12)1.04 (0.71–1.51)
 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander1.41 (1.19–1.68)a1.62 (1.37–1.91)a1.00 (0.37–2.69)0.46 (0.18–1.20)1.15 (0.59–2.24)1.01 (0.52–1.94)
 Other1.23 (1.15–1.32)a1.26 (1.17–1.37)a1.67 (0.69–4.04)0.47 (0.13–1.71)1.08 (0.62–1.88)0.83 (0.60–1.13)
 Multiracial and/or multiple ethnicities1.36 (1.30–1.43)a1.40 (1.33–1.48)a1.33 (0.72–2.44)1.16 (0.62–2.18)1.25 (0.78–1.99)0.95 (0.73–1.23)
  • Subsamples include 0.2% (n = 202) transgender, male to female; 0.1% (n = 175) transgender, female to male; and 0.3% (n = 344) transgender, not exclusively male or female. Additionally, a small percentage of adolescents reported that they were not sure of their gender identity (0.9% [n = 1052]; referred to as questioning), whereas 50.6% (n = 60 973) identified as female, and 48% (n = 57 871) identified as male.

  • a Significantly differs from P < .003.

  • b The reference group for urbanicity is rural and small cities.

  • c The reference group for sexual orientation is only heterosexual.

  • d The reference group for race and/or ethnicity is white, non-Latino.