TABLE 1

Prevalence of Respiratory Symptoms by Basic Characteristics

Basic Characteristicn%χ2PAdjusted OR (95% CI)
Gender
    Male15 19312.7<.001
    Female17 31311.3
Age group
    ≤1518 33611.7.201
    >1514 17012.2
Highest parental education level
    Unknown580011.9.005
    Uneducated or Kindergarten53316.7
    Primary school409412.3
    Form 1–3757912.3
    Form 4–5817511.6
    Form ≥6632511.3
Housing type
    Public housing estate14 02711.9.002
    Home ownership scheme316111.8
    Private (owner)10 41811.5
    Private (tenant)274712.2
    Temporary33718.7
    Other181613.1
Smoking statusa
    Never-smokers24 73310.6<.0011.00
    Experimenters/ex-smokers490812.91.23 (1.13–1.35)b
    Current smokers (<1 cig/wk)163318.21.77 (1.52–2.07)b
    Current smokers (≥1 cig/wk)123227.43.07 (2.67–3.53b
  • a OR for having respiratory symptoms, as compared with never-smokers, were adjusted for age, gender, housing type, and the highest parental education (P < .001 for trend).

  • b P < .001.