TABLE 6

Regression Results of Age-Adjusted Depressive Symptoms Score Over Fatherhood-Years

Age-Adjusted Standardized Depression ScoreβSEP95% CI
Nonresident fathera0.0110.091.91–0.168 to 0.190
Resident fathera−0.0090.045.85–0.098 to 0.080
(–9 to –4) FHY−0.0070.009.48–0.025 to 0.012
 Nonresident father × FHY0.0270.027.31–0.025 to 0.080
 Resident father × FHY0.0060.015.71–0.024 to 0.035
(–4, 0) FHY0.0200.017.24–0.014 to 0.054
 Nonresident father × FHY−0.0050.035.89–0.074 to 0.064
 Resident father × FHY*−0.0550.024.02–0.103 to –0.007
(0 to +5) FHY−0.0100.012.40–0.035 to 0.014
 Nonresident father × FHY−0.0150.028.59–0.071 to 0.040
 Resident father × FHY*0.0330.016.04–0.001 to 0.065
(+5 to +10) FHY−0.0030.020.89–0.043 to 0.037
 Nonresident father × FHY−0.0290.052.57–0.131 to 0.072
 Resident father × FHY−0.0230.033.49–0.088 to 0.042
Covariates
 Physical health**−0.2290.011<.001–0.249 to –0.208
 Income**−0.0350.008<.001–0.051 to –0.019
 Employment**−0.0740.017<.001–0.108 to –0.040
 Black**0.1220.029<.0010.066 to 0.178
 Asian**0.2960.045<.0010.207 to 0.385
 Latino*0.0680.030.020.009 to 0.126
 Other*0.1310.054.020.025 to 0.237
 Marital status**−0.1280.028<.001–0.184 to –0.073
 Mother’s education**−0.040.013.002–0.066 to –0.014
 Own education**−0.0780.010<.001–0.097 to –0.060
Number of children*0.0470.024.050.001 to 0.093
Intercept0.9530.049<.0010.856 to 1.049
  • * P ≤ .05; **P ≤ .01. CI, confidence interval; FHY, fatherhood-years.

  • a Referent group is nonfathers.