American Academy of Pediatrics Joint Committee on Infant Hearing Year 2007 Position Statement3: Risk Indicators Associated With Permanent Congenital, Delayed-Onset, and/or Progressive Hearing Loss in Childhood

1Caregiver concerna regarding hearing, speech, language, or developmental delay.
2Family historya of permanent childhood hearing loss.
3Neonatal intensive care of more than 5 days or any of the following regardless of length of stay: ECMOa, assisted ventilation, exposure to ototoxic medications (gentamicin and tobramycin) or loop diuretics (furosemide/Lasix), and hyperbilirubinemia19 that requires exchange transfusion.
4In utero infections such as CMVa, herpes, rubella, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis.
5Craniofacial anomalies, including those that involve the pinna, ear canal, ear tags, ear pits, and temporal bone anomalies.
6Physical findings, such as white forelock, that are associated with a syndrome known to include a sensorineural or permanent conductive hearing loss.
7Syndromes associated with hearing loss or progressive or late-onset hearing lossa, such as neurofibromatosis, osteopetrosis, and Usher syndrome; other frequently identified syndromes include Waardenburg, Alport, Pendred, and Jervell and Lange-Nielson.
8Neurodegenerative disordersa, such as Hunter syndrome, or sensory motor neuropathies, such as Friedreich ataxia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.
9Culture-positive postnatal infections associated with sensorineural hearing lossa, including confirmed bacterial and viral (especially herpes viruses and varicella) meningitis.
10Head trauma, especially basal skull/temporal bone fracturea that requires hospitalization.
12Recurrent or persistent otitis media for at least 3 months.
  • Risk indicators that are marked with

  • a are of greater concern for delayed onset hearing loss. ECMO indicates extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CMV, cytomegalovirus.

  • Reproduced with permission from: American Academy of Pediatrics, Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. Pediatrics. 2007;120(4):898–921.