TABLE 4

Cross-Sectional Descriptive Statistics of Standardized Depressive Symptoms Scores at Entrance Into Fatherhood (Year 0) by Race and Fatherhood Status

Mean (SE)SDMinimumMaximumP
White
 Nonfathers−0.05 (0.02)0.98−1.465.62.001a
 Nonresident fathers0.29 (0.10)1.20−1.465.62<.001b
 Resident fathers−0.19 (0.02)0.93−1.464.91<.001c
Black
 Nonfathers0.06 (0.04)1.01−1.464.56.01a
 Nonresident fathers0.30 (0.09)1.10−1.464.81.16b
 Resident fathers0.16 (0.06)1.02−1.464.91.16c
Hispanic
 Nonfathers−0.02 (0.04)1.01−1.465.38.11a
 Nonresident fathers0.20 (0.13)1.03−1.463.53.07b
 Resident fathers−0.06 (0.05)0.96−1.463.80.55c
Asian
 Nonfathers0.12 (0.05)0.96−1.465.62.97a
 Nonresident fathers0.11 (0.31)0.91−1.271.85.76b
 Resident fathers0.21 (0.12)0.94−1.465.37.47c
Other
 Nonfathers0.05 (0.08)1.06−1.465.62.04a
 Nonresident fathers0.57 (0.21)0.89−1.262.78.02b
 Resident fathers−0.07 (0.11)1.07−1.463.73.38c
  • a Comparing nonfathers with nonresident fathers.

  • b Comparing nonresident fathers with resident fathers.

  • c Comparing resident fathers with nonfathers.