TABLE 2

Food Insecurity and Family Sociodemographic Characteristics in the E-Risk Study

ParameterIntermediate/High SES (N = 728)Low SESOR (95% CI)aStatistical Significance Testsb
Always Food-Secure (N = 264)Ever Food-Insecure (N = 96)T testP
Household income, mean (SD)c0.45 (0.87)−0.87 (0.46)−1.01 (0.39)2.30.02
Mother's age at study inception, mean (SD), yd35.5 (5.4)32.2 (5.8)32.0 (6.3)−0.21.83
Children's nonwhite ethnicity, %10.06.813.42.19 (0.96–4.97)
No. of months living without a partner, mean (SD)6.5 (16.3)22.0 (27.0)29.0 (30.8)1.52.12
No. of individuals in household, mean (SD)5.0 (1.1)5.2 (1.4)5.2 (1.7)0.64.52
Mother is employed outside the home (%)79.241.236.40.86 (0.52–1.41)
Mother's reading difficulty (%)8.128.033.71.39 (0.82–2.36)
  • a Categorical variables were analyzed by using ORs. All analyses are adjusted for household income.

  • b Continuous variables were analyzed by using t tests. All analyses are adjusted for household income.

  • c Household income was measured in British pounds per year. This measure was then standardized to a mean of 0 and an SD of 1. Our findings indicate that average income levels among intermediate/high-SES families were 0.45 SD above the sample mean, whereas average income levels among low-SES families were 0.87 SD below the sample mean among those who were food-secure and 1.01 SD below the sample mean among those who were food-insecure.

  • d The E-Risk study began in 1999–2000, when study children were 5 years of age.