TABLE 2

Baseline Characteristics of Survey Participants and Associations With Parenting Style (N = 5665)

Demographic FeaturesProportion of Total, %Parenting Style, %P
AuthoritarianAuthoritativePermissiveUninvolvedTotal
Gender
    Female499531918100.001
    Male517462720100
Race/ethnicity
    White628512318100.01
    Black166512320100
    Hispanic1612422422100
    Other610402426100
Grade
    9377512220100.208
    10338512318100
    11309452520100
Age
    14 y149472023100.001
    15 y337522216100
    16 y3110472419100
    17 y187482421100
    18 y45353228100
Academic performance
    A/B737562215100.001
    C2111352628100
    D/F66262147100
Urbanicity
    Central city159462322100.227
    Rural/town448512219100
    Suburban408492419100
Driving status
    Not driving yet268492221100.078
    Learning to drive399502318100
    Driving independently357482520100
Licensing
    Not licensed yet2911452320100.076
    Driving with adult317522319100
    Restricted license158532316100
    Unrestricted license246492519100
Most helpful in teaching how to drive
    No one911262736100.001
    Parent617552315100
    Another relative/friend1512382228100
    Driver's education148512220100
  • Bivariate analyses between parenting style and demographic characteristics, driving behaviors, and attitudes were performed by using robust χ2 tests of association.