TABLE 2

CES-D Scale Questions and Descriptive Statistics of Standardized Items Used to Create Depressive Symptoms Scores at Entrance Into Fatherhood

QuestionMean (SD)Minimum25%Median75%Maximum
1. You were bothered by things that do not usually bother you.−0.04 (0.99)−0.79−0.77−0.750.663.54
2. You felt that you could not shake off the blues, even with help from your family and your friends.−0.06 (0.94)−0.59−0.52−0.52−0.514.11
3. You did not feel just as good as other people.a−0.04 (1.01)−1.06−0.78−0.780.282.51
4. You had trouble keeping your mind on what you were doing.−0.07 (0.97)−1.03−0.83−0.830.513.19
5. You felt depressed.−0.09 (0.90)−0.69−0.53−0.53−0.534.05
6. You felt that you were too tired to do things.−0.12 (0.90)−1.11−0.880.160.483.21
7. You felt unhappy.a−0.04 (0.98)−1.11−1.040.190.192.64
8. You did not enjoy life.a−0.05 (0.99)−0.93−0.78−0.780.422.94
9. You felt sad.−0.10 (0.93)−0.86−0.75−0.750.723.66
10. You felt that people disliked you.0.03 (1.05)−0.63−0.47−0.47−0.474.86
  • Quartiles are not clinically based but represent scores distributed across our population. Ten-item subset of CES-D questions available in Add Health.

  • a These items were reversed coded from their typical direction. The language reflects this reversal.