TABLE 1

Characteristics of Fathers and Nonfathers Sample

NonfathersNonresident FathersResident FathersP
Age at fatherhood entranceaN/A21.9 (4.0)25.6 (3.9).36
Raceb<.001
 White3434 (50.6)274 (39.3)1460 (53.3)
 Black1331 (19.6)274 (39.3)520 (19.0)
 Hispanic1115 (16.4)97 (14.1)502 (18.3)
 Asian609 (9.0)15 (2.2)143 (5.2)
 Other302 (4.5)26 (3.8)113 (4.1)
Mother’s educationb<.001
 Less than HS868 (16.2)115 (20.6)419 (19.2)
 HS Graduate, Vocational School, or Technical School2017 (37.7)256 (45.9)967 (44.2)
 Some college to college graduate1919 (35.9)162 (29.0)674 (30.8)
 Some graduate school to professional degree545 (10.2)25 (4.5)127 (5.8)
Own educationb,c<.001
 Less than HS439 (6.4)127 (18.5)291 (10.6)
 HS graduate, vocational school, or technical school1357 (19.9)244 (35.6)927 (33.8)
 Some college to college graduate2734 (40.0)251 (36.6)1227 (44.8)
 Some graduate school to professional degree588 (8.6)15 (2.2)140 (5.1)
General healtha2.96 (0.89)2.87 (0.95)2.94 (0.89)<.001
Parent’s income (wave I)b<.001
 <$30 0001696 (29.7)262 (38.9)784 (29.2)
 $30 000–$49 9991355 (23.7)137 (20.4)596 (22.2)
 $50 000–$74 9991214 (21.3)84 (12.5)447 (16.6)
 >$75 0001442 (25.3)189 (28.1)862 (32.1)
Personal income (wave IV)b<.001
 <$30 000698 (18.5)137 (36.3)294 (15.8)
 $30 000–$49 999833 (22.1)86 (22.8)438 (23.6)
 $50 000–$74 999852 (22.6)79 (20.9)503 (27.1)
 >$75 0001391 (36.9)75 (19.9)621 (33.5)
Number of childrendN/A1.06 (1–3)1.52 (1–7)<.001
Marital statusb,c<.001
 Yes857 (12.6)54 (7.9)1975 (72.1)
 No5971 (87.4)632 (92.1)764 (27.9)
  • P values derived from t test for continuous variables and χ2 for categorical variables. HS, high school; N/A, not applicable.

  • a Mean (SD).

  • b n (%)

  • c As of 0 fatherhood-years.

  • d Mean (range).