TABLE 3

Risk of ASDs According to Maternal and Paternal BMI

BMI CategoryTotal Study Sample With Disorder Unadjusted ModelAdjusted Model Aa Maternal and Paternal BMI SeparatelyAdjusted Model Ba Maternal and Paternal BMI Combined
n (Column %)n (Row %)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)Odds OR (95% CI)
Autistic disorder (n = 162)
 Maternal BMI
  <18.52855 (3.1)5 (0.18)1.06 (0.43–2.61)0.93 (0.38–2.30)0.95 (0.39–2.35)
  18.5–24.960 655 (65.3)100 (0.16)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
  25.0–29.920 463 (22.0)33 (0.16)0.98 (0.66–1.45)0.95 (0.64–1.41)0.91 (0.60–1.35)
  ≥30.08936 (9.6)24 (0.27)1.63 (1.04–2.55)1.48 (0.94–2.32)1.34 (0.84–2.12)
 Paternal BMI
  <25.0b41 603 (44.8)59 (0.14)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
  25.0–29.942 039 (45.2)78 (0.19)1.31 (0.93–1.84)1.32 (0.94–1.86)1.31 (0.94–1.85)
  ≥30.09267 (10.0)25 (0.27)1.91 (1.19–3.04)1.82 (1.13–2.92)1.73 (1.07–2.82)
PDD-NOS (n = 154)
 Maternal BMI
  <18.52855 (3.1)7 (0.25)1.64 (0.76–3.53)1.44 (0.66–3.12)1.43 (0.66–3.10)
  18.5–24.960 655 (65.3)91 (0.15)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
  25.0–29.920 463 (22.0)42 (0.21)1.37 (0.95–1.97)1.31 (0.90–1.89)1.32 (0.91–1.91)
  ≥30.08936 (9.6)14 (0.16)1.04 (0.60–1.83)0.93 (0.52–1.64)0.94 (0.53–1.67)
 Paternal BMI
  <25.0b41 603 (44.8)71 (0.17)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
  25.0–29.942 039 (45.2)67 (0.16)0.93 (0.67–1.30)0.93 (0.67–1.31)0.93 (0.66–1.30)
  ≥30.09267 (10.0)16 (0.17)1.01 (0.59–1.74)0.96 (0.55–1.65)0.95 (0.54–1.65)
Asperger Disorderc (n = 95)
 Maternal BMI
  <18.51543 (3.1)5 (0.32)2.02 (0.81–5.07)1.92 (0.76–4.83)1.89 (0.75–4.77)
  18.5–24.932 384 (64.6)52 (0.16)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
  25.0–29.911 259 (22.5)25 (0.22)1.38 (0.86–2.23)1.38 (0.85–2.23)1.33 (0.82–2.15)
  ≥30.04930 (9.8)13 (0.26)1.64 (0.90–3.02)1.61 (0.87–2.98)1.40 (0.74–2.64)
 Paternal BMI
  <25.0b22 736 (44.4)42 (0.18)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
  25.0–29.922 619 (45.1)35 (0.15)0.84 (0.54–1.31)0.86 (0.55–1.35)0.85 (0.54–1.33)
  ≥30.04761 (9.5)18 (0.38)2.05 (1.18–3.57)2.14 (1.22–3.75)2.01 (1.13–3.57)
ASDc (n = 305)
 Maternal BMI
  <18.51543 (3.1)13 (0.84)1.55 (0.88–2.72)1.39 (0.79–2.46)1.39 (0.79–2.46)
  18.5–24.932 384 (64.6)177 (0.55)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
  25.0–29.911 259 (22.5)81 (0.72)1.32 (1.01–1.72)1.29 (0.99–1.69)1.26 (0.96–1.65)
  ≥30.04930 (9.8)34 (0.69)1.26 (0.87–1.83)1.17 (0.81–1.70)1.09 (0.74–1.59)
 Paternal BMI
  <25.0b22 736 (44.4)131 (0.58)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
  25.0–29.922 619 (45.1)130 (0.57)1.00 (0.79–1.28)0.99 (0.78–1.27)1.00 (0.78–1.28)
  ≥30.04761 (9.5)44 (0.92)1.61 (1.15–2.28)1.55 (1.10–2.19)1.53 (1.07–2.17)
  • Total sample for autistic and disorder, n = 92 909; total sample for Asperger disorder and ASD, n = 50 116. Ref, reference category.

  • a Adjusted for parental education levels, child’s year of birth, and maternal parity. For parental education levels, missing data were included as a separate category.

  • b Underweight (BMI <18.5) was not used as a separate category for fathers because only 216 (0.2%) had BMI <18.5.

  • c Analyses for Asperger disorder and autism spectrum disorder included children aged ≥7 y (children born 1999–2005). ASD includes all subtypes (autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger’s disorder).