TABLE 1

Evidentiary Table for Out-of-Hospital Traumatic Cardiopulmonary Arrest in Children Where Outcome Was Reported

AuthorsNo. of Trauma VictimsSurvivorsOutcomeSpecial CircumstancesClass
Hazinski et al 19942381Severe disability (9.5-y-old functioning as nonambulatory 1-y-old)Out-of-hospital intubation did not influence likelihood of reanimationII
Suominen et al 19983281Moderate disabilityRun over by train, airway obstructed, spontaneous circulation within 17 min of the accident and after 5 min of resuscitationIII
Pitetti et al 200241531Severely disabled (PCPC 4; see Table 3)Survivors likely to be in sinus rhythm on arrival in ED, to have received fewer doses of epinephrine in EDIII
Kuisma et al 199542101Partial disability, capable of self-care (Bloom III; see Table 2)Mean resuscitation times for survivors and nonsurvivors was 11.4 and 30.6 min; bystander initiated related to favorable outcome, survivor had ROSC in 17 minIII
Calkins et al 200243160III
Ronco et al 199544261Severely disabled (examined by a neurologist, no scoring system)Median ED resuscitation time for both survivors and nonsurvivors was 30 min; only intact survivor was resuscitated before ED arrivalIII
O’Rourke, 198645102Vegetative stateIII
Thompson et al 199046282Severely disabledIII
Tsai and Kalisen, 19874760III
Friesen et al 198248130Interval between arrest and institution of active CPR was 2.3 min in survivors and 6.5 min in nonsurvivorsII
Sirbaugh et al 199949440II
Sheikh and Culbertson 199350130All had ED thoracotomy within 5 min of ED arrivalIII
Beaver et al 198751170All had ED thoracotomy after a mean of 22 min of conventional resuscitationIII
Powell et al 19885290All had ED thoracotomy; all scene arrest patients diedIII
Young et al 200453
(same as Brindis et al 201180)1186All severe disability or vegetative state (PCPC 4 or 5)No survivor who had ED CPR >31 min had a good neurologic outcomeII
Patterson et al 200554590No long-term trauma survivors with use of either standard or high-dose epinephrineII
Martin et al 20025570All patients in study had pulseless electrical activity at sceneIII
Broides et al 20005770III
Widdel et al 201069301Good neurologic outcomeSurvivor had 2 min of out-of-hospital CPR; aggressive resuscitation is rarely successfulIII
Horisberger et al 200265160III
Capizzani et al 2010663062 with good neurologic outcome, 1 fair, 3 poorCPR >15 min and fixed pupils were predictive of death or poor outcomeIII
Fisher and Worthen 1999646511 survivor in persistent vegetative stateIII
Murphy et al 2010681692855% survived intact but one-third of these required no airway support66 patients transferred from another hospital; no children survived if CPR was ongoing at ED arrivalIII
Total81251 (6.3%)29 (57%) severe disability; 3 (6%) moderate disability; 19 (37%) normal