TABLE 6.

Significant Risk Factors at 4 Months

VariableCase (n = 39; n [%])Control (n = 161; n [%])Univariate OR (95% CI)Multivariate OR (95% CI)
Gender (missing = 2)χ2 = 3.54, P = .06
    Male26 (66.7)79 (49.7)2.03 (0.97–4.22)
    Female13 (33.3)80 (50.3)1.00
Parity (missing = 2)χ2 = 2.77, P = .09
    Firstborn22 (56.4)66 (41.5)1.82 (0.90–3.70)
    Later born17 (43.6)93 (58.5)1.00
Limitation of passive rotation - newborn (missing = 16)χ2 = 13.07, P = .0003χ2 = 8.49, P = .004
    Limited9 (25.0)6 (4.1)7.78 (2.56–23.70)6.51 (1.85–22.98)
    Not limited27 (75.0)140 (95.9)1.001.00
Active rotation at 4 months (missing = 5)χ2 = 6.20, P = .02χ2 = 5.50, P = .02
    Limitation14 (35.9)27 (17.3)2.68 (1.23–5.81)3.11 (1.21–8.05)
    No limitation25 (64.1)129 (82.7)1.001.00
Sleep position at newborn interview (missing = 2)χ2 = 3.02, P = .08
    Supine only29 (74.4)94 (59.1)2.01 (0.91–4.40)
    Nonsupine10 (25.6)65 (40.9)1.00
Sleep position at 6 wk (missing = 2)χ2 = 5.11, P = .02
    Supine only27 (69.2)78 (49.1)2.33 (1.11–4.93)
    Nonsupine12 (30.8)81 (50.9)1.00
Head position varied at 6 wk (missing = 2)χ2 = 11.28, P = .004χ2 = 9.20, P = .01
    Yes17 (43.6)94 (59.1)1.001.00
    No9 (23.1)48 (30.2)1.04 (0.43–2.50)1.04 (0.36–3.00)
    Tried but unsuccessful13 (33.3)17 (10.7)4.23 (1.74–10.28)4.28 (1.58–11.59)
Head position varied at 4 mo (missing = 2)χ2 = 4.97, P = .08
    Yes9 (23.1)46 (28.9)1.00
    No19 (48.7)92 (57.9)1.06 (0.44–2.52)
    Tried but unsuccessful11 (28.2)21 (13.2)2.68 (0.97–7.43)
Back time per day at 6 wk (missing = 2)χ2 = 6.05, P = .01
    < 21 hours22 (56.4)121 (76.1)1.00
    ≥ 21 hours17 (43.6)38 (23.9)2.43 (1.47–5.20)
Pillow used (missing = 3)χ2 = 3.57, p = .06
    Yes7 (18.0)12 (7.6)2.64 (0.97–7.24)
    No32 (82.0)145 (92.4)1.00
PDQ-II delays at 6w (missing = 2)P = .005 (Fisher)
    Normal / slightly abnormal35 (89.7)158 (99.4)1.00
    Abnormal: >1 delay or > 2 cautions4 (10.3)1 (0.6)18.06 (1.96–166.54)
Snoring (missing = 2)χ2 = 7.36, P = .007
    Yes6 (15.4)5 (3.1)5.60 (1.61–19.45)
    None/minimal33 (84.6)154 (96.9)1.00
Activity level at 4m categorised (missing = 2)χ2 = 7.34, P = .007χ2 = 4.98, P = .03
    Low: < 6.511 (28.2)17 (10.7)3.28 (1.40–7.75)3.28 (1.16–9.29)
    High: > = 6.528 (71.8)142 (89.3)1.001.00
PAT (temperament test) categorized (missing = 2)χ2 = 4.63, P = .03χ2 = 5.09, P = .02
    Easy: <167 (17.9)58 (36.5)1.001.00
    Average-difficult: ≥1632 (82.1)101 (63.5)2.63 (1.09–6.32)3.30 (1.17–9.29)