Indication Categories

Category 1: maternal medical conditions
    Cardiac disease
    Acute or chronic lung disease
    Chronic hypertension
    Pregnancy-associated hypertension
    Seizures during labor
    Renal disease
Category 2: obstetric complications
    Incompetent cervix
    Rh sensitization
    Uterine bleeding
    Premature rupture of membranes (>12 h)
    Abruptio placenta
    Placenta previa
    Other excessive bleeding
    Cord prolapse
    Fetal distress
Category 3: major congenital anomalies
    Spina bifida/meningomyelocele
    Other central nervous system anomalies
    Heart malformations
    Other circulatory/respiratory anomalies
    Rectal atresia/stenosis
    Tracheo-esophageal fistula/esophageal fistula
    Other gastrointestinal anomalies
    Renal agenesis
    Other urogenital anomalies
    Diaphragmatic hernia
    Other musculoskeletal/integumental anomalies
    Down syndrome
    Other chromosomal anomalies
Category 4: isolated spontaneous labor: vaginal delivery that was not induced and there were no associated medical or obstetric factors or major congenital anomalies.
Category 5: no recorded indication
    Births without any of the indication categories noted above