TABLE 1.

Effects of Some Chemicals, Drugs, and Physical Agents on Teeth

AgentStage of DevelopmentRemarks
LeadEmbryo, infant, child, adolescent, adultMay affect tooth development; may enhance susceptibility to dental caries
TobaccoEmbryo, infant, child, adolescent, adultMay affect tooth development; ETS may enhance susceptibility to dental caries; enhances susceptibility to dental caries and periodontal disease
MercuryEmbryo, infant, child, adultNo apparent effect on teeth
FluorideEmbryo, infant, child adolescent, adultExcess intake during enamel maturation may cause hypomineralization; no adverse effect on mineralization once enamel maturation is complete
DioxinsEmbryo, infant child, adolescent, adultMay affect tooth development; may enhance susceptibility to dental caries
TetracyclinesEmbryo, infant, child adolescent, adultMay cause tooth discoloration; no apparent effect on teeth
Other drugsEmbryo, infant child, adolescent, adultMay affect tooth development; may enhance susceptibility to dental caries
Physical agents (trauma)Embryo, infant, child infant, child, adolescent, adultMay affect tooth development; may result in injury to teeth, soft tissues, and supporting structures