TABLE 5

Percent With a Reported Previous Test for BLL According to Selected Demographic Characteristics, Children Aged 1 to 5 Years, NHANES III Phase 1 (1988–1991), NHANES III Phase 2 (1991–1994), and NHANES 1999–2004

Population GroupNHANES III Phase 1 (1988–1991)NHANES III Phase 2 (1991–1994)NHANES 1999–2004
na% (95% CI)na% (95% CI)na% (95% CI)
All29758.9 (5.3–13.4)270111.5 (7.6–16.0)328133.3 (29.1–37.7)b
Gender
    Girl15378.0 (4.4–12.5)b133412.0 (7.7–17.2)161333.6 (28.8–38.7)b
    Boy14389.8 (5.9–14.6)b136711.0 (7.1–15.6)166833.1 (28.8–37.5)b
Age
    1–2 y13118.1 (5.0–11.8)b116611.8 (7.4–17.0)167029.0 (24.8–33.4)b,c
    3–5 y16649.5 (5.3–14.7)b153511.3 (7.1–16.2)161136.3 (31.4–41.5)b,c
Race/ethnicity
    Non-Hispanic black88421.0 (13.7–29.3)b86524.6 (16.9–33.2)95443.6 (37.2–50.2)b,d,e
    Mexican American10781.2 (0.4–2.6)b,f9149.7 (5.8–14.6)102128.0 (22.5–33.8)b,d
    Non-Hispanic white8996.5 (2.2–12.9)b,f7507.6 (4.1–12.1)99231.8 (26.3–37.6)b,e
PIR
    ≤1.3133213.6 (9.4–18.4)b136716.5 (10.4–23.8)157438.8 (32.6–45.2)b,c
    >1.313226.4 (2.6–11.9)b,f11647.8 (4.7–11.6)147129.1 (24.4–34.1)b,c
Medicaid status
    Yes81719.2 (12.0–27.7)b107919.2 (13.1–26.0)121441.9 (35.2–48.8)b,c
    No16936.3 (2.8–11.2)b,f16168.3 (5.3–11.9)200729.7 (25.7–33.9)b,c
Year housing built(risk of lead exposure)g
    Low risk7844.3 (1.2–9.1)b8555.4 (3.1–8.3)89125.9 (19.9–32.3)b,h
    Medium risk12679.4 (5.7–13.9)b,f99010.8 (7.0–15.4)72229.1 (23.6–35.0)b,i
    High risk50718.0 (11.4–25.5)b41620.9 (13.5–29.4)43445.1 (36.0–54.3)b,h,i
    Not known21120.4 (12.4–29.8)39617.2 (10.3–25.4)123440.5 (35.3–45.9)
BLL, μg/dL
    <1019226.3 (3.4–10.1)b221110.3 (6.5–14.8)233032.6 (28.6–36.9)b
    ≥1025430.1 (17.7–44.1)14537.4 (24.2–51.8)5343.0 (22.9–64.5)
  • a Total n includes children both tested and not tested for blood lead in referent NHANESs.

  • b Difference between 1988–1991 and 1999–2004 statistically significant at P < .05 after Bonferroni adjustment.

  • c Difference between strata in 1999–2004 statistically significant at P < .05.

  • d Difference between non-Hispanic black children and Mexican American children in 1999–2004 statistically significant at P < .05 after Bonferroni adjustment.

  • e Difference between non-Hispanic black children and non-Hispanic white children in 1999–2004 statistically significant at P < .05 after Bonferroni adjustment.

  • f Relative SE of point estimate ≥30%; does not meet standard of statistical reliability and precision.

  • g Risk of lead exposure by year housing built defined as follows:

    NHANES 1999–2004: low risk, built 1978 and later; medium risk, built between 1950 and 1977; high risk, built before 1950.

    NHANES III phases 1 and 2: low risk, built 1974 and later; medium risk, built between 1946 and 1973; high risk, built before 1946.

  • h Difference between low-risk housing and high-risk housing in 1999–2004 statistically significant at P < .05 after Bonferroni adjustment.

  • i Difference between medium-risk housing and high-risk housing in 1999–2004 statistically significant at P < .05 after Bonferroni adjustment.