VariableSurvey QuestionResponse Categories
    AgeHow old are you?[lowem][lowem]years
    GenderAre you a girl or a boy?Girl/boy
    SESAssessed by type of school attended
Social influences
    Parental alcohol useWhich of the following statements best describes how often your parents drink alcohol?Never, once a year, once a month, once a week, every day
    Friend drinkingHow many of your friends drink alcohol?None, some, most, all
Adolescent characteristics
    School performanceHow would you describe your grades last year?Excellent, good, average, below average
    Sensation seeking/rebelliousness (12-item index,I like to do scary thingsNot like me
        range: 0–3, Cronbach's α = .77)I get bored being with the sameSort of like me
friends all the timeA lot like me
I like to do dangerous thingsJust like me
I often think there is nothing to do
I like to listen to loud music
I get in trouble in school
I argue a lot with other kids
I do things my parents wouldn't want me to do
I do what my teachers tell me to do
I sometimes take things that don't belong to me
I argue with my teachers
I like to break the rules
    Parenting style16 (8-item index, range: 0–3,She makes me feel better when I am upsetNot like her
    Cronbach's α = .64)She listens to what I have to saySort of like her
She is too busy to talk to meA lot like her
She wants to hear about my problemsJust like her
She has rules that I must follow
She tells me what time I have to be home
She asks me what I do with my friends
She knows where I am after school
  • SES was not measured directly. Instead, school type was used as a proxy. Schleswig-Holstein has a school system with 4 types of schools, and type of school is strongly associated with SES. The Hauptschule recruits pupils from low SES, the Realschule recruits students with mid SES, the Gymnasium pupils have a mid to high SES background, and the Gesamtschule is a mixed form.