TABLE 3.

Behavioral Problems in Preschool/Kindergarten by Spanking Frequency at Ages <24 Months

Spanking Frequency in the Week Preceding Baseline% at Follow-up With Behavior Problems in School That Required Parent-Teacher Meeting (n)% at Follow-up With BPI >119 (n)
Full SampleWhiteAfrican AmericanHispanicFull SampleWhiteAfrican AmericanHispanic
Never6.6% (79/1208)5.3% (35/660)9.4% (26/278)6.7% (18/270)11.9% (144/1208)9.7% (64/660)17.3% (48/278)11.9% (32/270)
Once or twice9.6 (39/409)9.6 (20/209)11.5 (14/122)6.4 (5/78)13.0 (53/409)10.5 (22/209)16.4 (20/122)14.1 (11/78)
More than twice10.9 (38/349)11.7 (18/154)11.5 (17/148)6.4 (3/47)18.0 (63/349)16.9 (26/154)19.6 (29/148)17.0 (8/47)
χ2 (2)9.80717.7680.6660.0108.9016.6620.5441.074
P value.007.000.717.995.012.036.762.584