TABLE 3

Differential Effects of Parental Smoking According to Offspring Sex, Age, and the Presence of the Father in the Household

OR95% CI
Differential effects according to offspring sex
    Mother's smoking
        Girlsa2.731.50–4.98
        Boysa2.291.39–3.77
    Father's smoking
        Girlsa1.060.59–1.89
        Boysa2.391.45–3.92
Differential effects according to offspring age
    Mother's or father's smoking
        ≤Age 12b3.632.07–6.36
        ≥Age 13b1.711.06–2.76
Differential effects according to father's presence in the household
    Father's smoking
        Father at homec3.181.93–5.23
        Father not at homec1.130.59–2.17
  • a Results of 2 discrete-time survival models of the age at smoking initiation, 1 estimated for girls and 1 for boys. Models also adjusted for age at interview and the baseline hazard of initiation in each year of life.

  • b Results of 2 discrete-time survival models of the age at smoking initiation, 1 estimated for person-years through age 12, and 1 for person-years ≥13. Models also adjusted for adolescent sex, age at interview, and the baseline hazard of initiation in each year of life.

  • c Results of 2 discrete-time survival models of the age at smoking initiation, 1 estimate for person-years in which the father was living at home, and 1 for person-years when father was not living at home. Models also adjusted for adolescent sex, age at interview, and the baseline hazard of initiation in each year of life.