TABLE 2

Characteristics of Participants According to Quintiles of Cord Blood Adiponectin (N = 588)

VariableTotal Mean (SD)Quintile of Cord Blood AdiponectinaTrend P
1 (2.9–23.1)2 (>23.1–27.5)3 (>27.5–30.9)4 (>30.9–33.9)5 (>33.9–42.6)
Maternal variables
    Age at enrollment, y32.3 (5.1)32.931.932.831.632.1.20
    Prepregnancy BMI, kg/m224.8 (5.4)25.524.824.425.424.0.14
    Gestational weight gain, kg15.7 (5.5)15.115.616.216.215.4.42
    Paternal BMI, kg/m226.4 (3.8)26.525.926.526.726.2.76
    Education, ≥college degree400 (68)71%62%67%69%72%.53
    Married or cohabitating543 (93)91%96%94%92%90%.51
    Household income, more than $70 000332 (61)61%61%61%58%62%.95
Newborn/infant variables
    Male295 (50)b56%51%45%47%52%.38
    Race/ethnicity, white408 (69)b66%69%70%72%70%.38
    Cord blood leptin, μg/mL8.8 (6.4)5.37.19.710.311.5<.0001
    Gestational age at birth, wk39.7 (1.5)39.239.639.939.840.0<.0001
    BW/GA, z score0.26 (0.94)0.070.170.230.480.33.002
    Breastfeeding duration, mo6.2 (4.5)5.76.16.26.66.6.08
Child 3-y variables
    Age, y3.3 (0.4)3.43.33.33.33.3.01
    BMI z score0.41 (1.03)0.350.40.330.640.31.60
    Weight-for-age z score0.45 (0.98)0.490.330.370.710.34.73
    Height-for-age z score0.27 (0.94)0.410.130.240.410.17.47
    Leg length, cm42.0 (3.1)42.542.041.942.141.57.06
    SS/TR ratio0.63 (0.15)0.610.630.630.640.650.04
    SS + TR, mm16.7 (4.2)16.416.816.317.516.6.36
    Leptin, ng/mL1.7 (1.8)1.51.61.71.71.8.37
    Adiponectin, μg/mL22.3 (6.0)21.621.922.922.822.2.40
  • a Data are means unless otherwise specified.

  • b Data are n (%).