TABLE 1

Characteristics of Participants According to Quintiles of Cord Blood Leptin (N = 588)

VariablesTotal, Mean (SD)Quintile of Cord Blood LeptinaTrend P
1 (0.5–3.3)2 (>3.3–5.5)3 (>5.5–8.7)4 (>8.7–13.9)5 (>13.9–40.0)
Maternal variables
    Age at enrollment, y32.3 (5.1)31.932.331.932.432.8.25
    Prepregnancy BMI, kg/m224.8 (5.4)24.224.124.725.126.0.003
    Gestational weight gain, kg15.7 (5.5)15.515.615.816.015.6.73
    Paternal BMI, kg/m226.4 (3.8)25.825.926.527.126.5.03
    Education, ≥college degree400 (68)b69%67%64%65%75%.45
    Married or cohabitating543 (93)b87%96%94%95%91%.43
    Household income, more than $70 000332 (61)b65%61%54%68%56%.45
Newborn/infant variables
    Male295 (50)b65%58%52%42%34%<.0001
    Race/ethnicity, white408 (69)b69%76%71%64%66%.16
    Cord blood adiponectin, μg/mL28.5 (6.8)24.227.129.83031.7<.0001
    Gestational age at birth, wk39.7 (1.5)38.939.739.740.140.1<.0001
    BW/GA, z score0.26 (0.94)−0.15−0.080.160.500.84<.0001
    Breastfeeding duration, mo6.2 (4.5)6.25.66.55.67.3.08
Child 3-y variables
    Age, y3.3 (0.4)3.43.33.33.33.2.002
    BMI z score0.41 (1.03)0.420.320.520.530.24.61
    Weight-for-age z score0.45 (0.98)0.470.340.490.620.33.97
    Height-for-age z score0.27 (0.94)0.260.220.210.390.28.44
    Leg length, cm42.0 (3.1)42.541.742.042.141.8.30
    SS/TR ratio0.63 (0.15)0.620.620.640.640.64.19
    SS + TR, mm16.7 (4.2)16.916.216.417.416.7.63
    Leptin, ng/mL1.7 (1.8)1.31.41.81.82.2.001
    Adiponectin, μg/mL22.3 (6.0)23.322.922.521.021.4.02
  • a Data are means unless otherwise specified.

  • b Data are n (%).