TABLE 1

Characteristics of Subjects According to Treatment Group

Fundoplication (N = 323), n (%)GJT (N = 43), n (%)P
Age at time of procedure, mean (SD), mo16 (16)24 (20).008
Gender (female)146 (45)13 (30).07
Previous AP50 (15)9 (21).36
Tracheostomy21(7)9 (21)<.001
Previous swallow study196 (61)29 (67).38
Cerebral spinal fluid shunt38 (12)12 (28).004
Chronic lung disease50 (15)7 (16).89
Seizures117 (36)21 (49).11
Specific conditions with relative surgical contraindicationsa28 (9)12 (28)<.001
CCCb
    Cardiovascular27 (63)139 (43).014
    Respiratory85 (26)14 (33).38
    Renal16 (5)5 (12).08
    Gastrointestinal22 (7)9 (21).002
    Hematology or immunologic5 (2)1 (2).71
    Metabolic29 (9)5 (12).57
    Other congenital or genetic defect124 (38)24 (56).028
    Malignancy6 (2)3 (7).04
Reason for neurologic impairmentc
    Cerebral palsy165 (42)20 (47).55
    Brain or spinal cord anomaly122 (38)20 (47).26
    Hydrocephalus66 (20)14 (33).07
    Chromosomal anomalies50 (15)11 (26).09
    Cerebral degeneration42 (13)3 (7).26
    Down syndrome37 (11)2 (5).18
    Nervous system anomaly30 (9)6 (14).33
    Muscular dystrophy or myopathy24 (7)2 (5).51
    Other paralytic conditions21 (6)5 (12).22
    Anterior horn cell20 (6)1 (2).31
    Spina bifida14 (4)4 (9).16
    Mental retardation12 (4)0 (0).20
    Demyelinating central nervous system disorders3 (1)1 (2).41
    Spinocerebellar disease1 (0.3)2 (5).003
    Tuberous sclerosis1 (0.3)0 (0).72
    Infantile spasms17 (5)4 (9).28
    AP (outcome)48 (15)7 (16).65
    Death (outcome)40 (12)9 (21).12
  • a These conditions include microgastria, Barrett esophagus, peptic stricture, esophageal dysmotility, and short esophagus.

  • b CCCs were defined by using ICD-9-CM codes.22

  • c Children may have had >1 reason for neurologic impairment (mean number of diagnoses per patient: 2).