TABLE 4

Adjusted ORs (and 95% CIs) for Factors Associated With Measures of Family Impact Among CSHCN Aged 3 to 17 Years: United States, 2005–2006

VariableChild's Health Care Caused Financial Problems for the FamilyFamily Needed Additional Income to Cover Child's Medical ExpensesFamily Members Had to Reduce or Stop Employment Because of Child's ConditionFamily Spent ≥10 Hours per Week Providing or Coordinating Care for ChildFamily Paid $1000 or More for Child's Medical Care in Previous Year
Presence of ASDa
    CSHCN with ASD2.40 (1.99–2.90)2.46 (2.03–2.98)3.29 (2.77–3.91)2.16 (1.74–2.69)1.85 (1.53–2.24)
    CSHCN with other EDB problems1.81 (1.62–2.03)1.65 (1.46–1.87)1.75 (1.57–1.95)1.15 (0.97–1.36)1.62 (1.45–1.80)
    Other CSHCN1.001.001.001.001.00
Age, y
    3–50.88 (0.74–1.04)0.94 (0.79–1.11)1.68 (1.44–1.96)1.74 (1.36–2.21)0.74 (0.64–0.86)
    6–80.84 (0.73–0.98)0.93 (0.79–1.09)1.33 (1.16–1.54)1.61 (1.28–2.02)0.88 (0.76–1.01)
    9–110.80 (0.70–0.92)0.88 (0.75–1.03)1.16 (1.01–1.34)1.31 (1.05–1.62)0.79 (0.69–0.89)
    12–140.86 (0.75–1.00)0.96 (0.82–1.11)1.09 (0.95–1.25)1.26 (1.00–1.58)1.01 (0.89–1.15)
    15–171.001.001.001.001.00
Gender
    Male0.96 (0.87–1.06)0.93 (0.83–1.03)0.91 (0.82–1.00)1.00 (0.86–1.15)0.86 (0.78–0.94)
    Female1.001.001.001.001.00
Hispanic origin and race
    Hispanic, any race0.84 (0.70–1.01)0.86 (0.70–1.06)1.08 (0.90–1.30)1.32 (0.98–1.79)0.76 (0.63–0.92)
    Non-Hispanic, white1.001.001.001.001.00
    Non-Hispanic, black0.74 (0.63–0.88)1.03 (0.88–1.21)0.95 (0.82–1.11)0.98 (0.80–1.22)0.47 (0.38–0.57)
    Non-Hispanic, otherb1.14 (0.94–1.37)1.35 (1.12–1.64)1.02 (0.86–1.22)0.90 (0.70–1.15)0.94 (0.78–1.14)
Primary Language in home
    English1.001.001.001.001.00
    Non-English1.19 (0.90–1.58)1.04 (0.76–1.41)2.03 (1.56–2.63)0.81 (0.54–1.24)1.19 (0.87–1.62)
Poverty status, %c
    <1002.35 (1.93–2.86)2.62 (2.10–3.26)1.10 (0.91–1.32)2.20 (1.67–2.92)0.32 (0.25–0.41)
    100 to <2003.15 (2.68–3.71)3.29 (2.75–3.94)1.15 (0.99–1.34)1.68 (1.31–2.16)0.57 (0.49–0.66)
    200 to <4002.28 (2.00–2.61)2.17 (1.85–2.55)1.03 (0.91–1.17)1.23 (1.00–1.50)0.78 (0.70–0.86)
    ≥4001.001.001.001.001.00
Family structure
    2 parent (biological/adoptive)1.001.001.001.001.00
    2 parent (step)0.82 (0.69–0.97)0.86 (0.71–1.04)1.07 (0.90–1.27)0.82 (0.64–1.04)0.81 (0.69–0.95)
    Single mother1.12 (0.99–1.27)1.13 (0.99–1.28)0.96 (0.85–1.08)0.86 (0.72–1.03)0.94 (0.83–1.05)
    Other0.86 (0.68–1.07)0.84 (0.67–1.06)0.68 (0.55–0.85)0.85 (0.63–1.13)0.93 (0.76–1.14)
Geographic region
    Northeast1.001.001.001.001.00
    Midwest1.00 (0.87–1.16)1.00 (0.85–1.17)0.89 (0.78–1.02)0.91 (0.74–1.12)1.12 (0.99–1.27)
    South1.13 (0.98–1.30)1.22 (1.05–1.41)1.00 (0.88–1.14)1.04 (0.85–1.28)1.26 (1.12–1.43)
    West0.96 (0.81–1.15)1.14 (0.94–1.38)0.87 (0.74–1.02)1.02 (0.80–1.31)1.02 (0.87–1.20)
Functional ability
    Affected usually, always, or a great deal4.48 (3.85–5.22)4.14 (3.51–4.89)6.38 (5.50–7.40)6.72 (5.29–8.54)2.67 (2.34–3.04)
    Affected some or very little2.50 (2.18–2.86)2.42 (2.09–2.81)2.78 (2.43–3.18)2.26 (1.79–2.85)1.93 (1.73–2.14)
    Never affected1.001.001.001.001.00
Type of insurance
    Private1.001.001.001.001.00
    Public0.70 (0.60–0.82)0.62 (0.53–0.74)1.41 (1.22–1.62)1.82 (1.45–2.27)0.23 (0.19–0.29)
    Both private and public1.02 (0.83–1.24)0.98 (0.80–1.21)1.79 (1.49–2.15)2.55 (2.01–3.23)0.60 (0.49–0.73)
    Insured (type unknown)1.42 (0.88–2.29)1.32 (0.81–2.15)1.22 (0.78–1.90)1.49 (0.93–2.39)1.58 (1.21–2.07)
    Uninsured2.58 (2.07–3.23)3.17 (2.57–3.92)1.71 (1.36–2.16)1.43 (1.02–2.00)1.64 (1.32–2.04)
  • a CSHCN aged 3 to 17 years were grouped into 3 categories: those with parent-reported ASD, those without ASD but with other EDB problems, and other CSHCN.

  • b Non-Hispanic other includes respondents identified as non-Hispanic and Asian, Alaska Native, American Indian, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, or mixed race.

  • c Data are based on the US Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines. For most households surveyed in 2005, 100% of poverty level was defined as $19 350 for a family of 4. For most households surveyed in 2006, 100% of poverty level was defined as $20 000 for a family of 4.