TABLE 2

Mean HRQoL Scale Scores, 95% Confidence Intervals, and Effect Sizes of Caregivers of Chronically Ill Children and the Comparison Group

ConditionNGross Motor FunctionESFine Motor FunctionESCognitive FunctioningESSleepESPainESSocial FunctioningESNDaily ActivitiesESªSexualityESVitalityESPositive EmotionsESDepressive EmotionsESAggressivenessES
Parents healthy children42588 (86–90)97 (96–98)79 (77–81)70 (68–73)72 (70–74)84 (82–86)43385 (83–87)85 (82–87)63 (61–65)66 (65–68)78 (77–80)87 (86–89)
Parents chronically ill children53384 (82–86)a0.1996 (95–97)0.1171 (69–73)a0.3261 (59–64)a0.3666 (64–69)a0.2776 (74–78)a0.454274 (72–77)a0.5178 (76–80)a0.3052 (50–54)a0.4859 (57–61)a0.3567 (65–69)a0.5784 (82–86)0.89
Asthma8780 (75–86)0.3893 (89–97)a0.4471 (65–77)0.3258 (52–64)a0.4767 (61–72)0.2280 (75–84)0.28974 (68–80)a0.5180 (74–86)0.2151 (46–57)a0.5358 (53–63)a0.4070 (65–75)a0.4185 (81–89)0.12
Survivors brain tumor3890 (84–97)0.1098 (97–100)0.1180 (71–89)0.0466 (58–75)0.1676 (69–84)0.1884 (78–89)03889 (83–95)0.1985 (77–93)061 (54–68)0.0963 (57–69)0.1571 (62–79)0.3688 (82–93)0.06
Diabetes2486 (74–97)0.1097 (92–100)076 (65–87)0.1258 (47–68)0.4768 (59–78)0.1877 (69–85)0.352475 (63–87)0.4786 (74–98)0.0457 (46–68)0.2658 (48–68)0.4068 (57–79)0.5188 (81–94)0.06
Duchenne muscular dystrophy5788 (84–92)075 (68–81)0.1663 (56–70)0.2866 (60–72)0.2775 (71–80)a0.455779 (73–86)0.2876 (69–83)0.3851 (44–58)a0.5357 (51–63)a0.4563 (56–69)a0.77
Down syndrome10087 (83–92)0.0566 (61–72)a0.5368 (62–74)0.0868 (63–73)0.1875 (70–80)a0.4510173 (67–79)a0.5681 (76–86)0.1755 (50–60)a0.3563 (59–67)0.1575 (71–79)0.1585 (81–88)0.12
End-stage renal disease1878 (67–90)0.4898 (96–100)0.1160 (43–78)0.7753 (39–67)0.6766 (53–78)0.2772 (63–80)0.62175 (62–88)0.4777 (63–90)0.3444 (32–56)a0.8354 (44–63)0.6060 (50–70)a0.93
Metabolic diseases11781 (76–85)0.3394 (91–97)0.3368 (63–73)a0.4558 (53–63)a0.4762 (56–67)a0.4571 (66–75)a0.6511868 (63–73)a0.7971 (65–76)a0.5946 (41–51)a0.7555 (51–59)a0.5560 (56–63)a0.9382 (79–86)0.24
Profound complex handicap1287 (73–100)0.0597 (91–100)074 (57–90)0.2057 (36–76)0.5166 (48–85)0.2770 (56–85)0.701379 (64–95)0.2844 (19–69)0.8346 (32–60)a1.063 (42–85)0.7768 (45–91)a1.36
Sickle cell disease5970 (62–77)a0.8695 (91–98)0.2270 (62–78)0.3651 (43–59)a0.7558 (51–66)a0.6373 (67–79)a0.556075 (67–83)0.4774 (64–83)0.4745 (39–51)a0.7952 (46–58)a0.7056 (49–63)a1.1376 (69–82)a0.67
Spina bifida2185 (74–97)0.1494 (87–100)0.3368 (55–81)0.4562 (50–74)0.3265 (54–77)0.3175 (65–86)0.452170 (58–82)a0.7080 (69–91)0.2152 (43–62)0.4865 (56–74)0.0571 (63–79)0.36
  • ES indicates effect size, Cohen's d. Mean scale scores and 95% confidence interval range domains are 0 to 100. The empty boxes indicate exclusion because of Cronbach's α < .60.

  • a P < .004 for parents in disease group in comparison to parents of healthy children (univariate analysis of variance, with age and educational level as covariates). –indicates not applicable.