TABLE 1.

Cognitive and Educational Effects of Poverty on Children

IndicatorChildren Who Are PoorChildren Who Are Not PoorRatio Poor/Nonpoor
Developmental delay5.0%3.8%1.3
Learning disability8.3%6.1%1.4
Grade retention28.8%14.1%2.0
Ever expelled or suspended12.1%6.1%2.0
High school dropout rate in 199421.0%9.6%2.2
Not employed or in school at age 2415.9%8.3%1.9