TABLE 4.

Percentage of Births With Selected Characteristics, by Race and Hispanic Origin of Mother: United States, Final 1990, 2001, Preliminary 2002

All Races*White, TotalNon-Hispanic WhiteBlack, TotalHispanic
200220011990200220011990200220011990200220011990200220011990
Mother
 <20 Years of age10.711.312.89.710.210.97.98.29.618.018.923.114.815.616.8
 Unmarried33.833.528.028.427.720.422.922.516.968.068.466.543.442.536.7
 <12 Completed years of schoolNA16.717.6NA17.217.1NA8.115.2NA16.819.6NA44.653.9
 ≥16 Completed years of schoolNA28.320.1NA29.721.7NA36.322.5NA15.09.4NA9.35.1
 Smoker§NA12.018.4NA13.019.4NA15.520.9NA9.015.9NA3.26.7
 Diabetes during pregnancyNA3.12.1NA3.02.2NA3.02.3NA2.91.8NA3.02.4
 Pregnancy-associated hypertensionNA3.82.7NA3.82.8NA4.23.1NA4.12.7NA2.62.3
Health care utilization
 First trimester prenatal care83.883.475.885.585.279.288.788.583.375.274.560.676.875.760.2
 Midwife-attended birthsNA8.03.9NA8.13.9NA7.53.2NA7.54.5NA9.66.2
 Cesarean delivery rate26.124.422.725.924.323.026.224.523.427.625.922.125.223.621.2
Infant
 Birth weight
 VLBW1.41.41.31.21.21.01.21.20.93.13.02.91.21.11.0
 LBW7.87.77.06.86.75.76.96.85.613.313.013.36.56.56.1
Preterm birth12.011.910.611.111.08.911.010.88.517.517.518.811.611.411.0
Multiple births per 1000 total births
 Live births in twin deliveries (not percent)NA30.122.6NA30.022.1NA33.522.9NA33.726.5NA20.318.0
 Live births in higher-order multiple deliveries (not percent)NA1.90.7NA2.10.8NA2.50.9NA0.90.5NA0.80.4
  • NA indicates data not available.

    Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on birth certificates. People of Hispanic origin may be of any race. In this table, Hispanic women are classified only by place of origin; non-Hispanic women are classified by race.

    Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, natality.

  • * Includes races other than white and black.

  • Excludes data for New Hampshire and Oklahoma, which did not report Hispanic origin.

  • Includes mothers ≥20 years old. For 1990, excludes data for New York (exclusive of New York City) and Washington, which did not report educational attainment of mother.

  • § For 2001, excludes data for California, and for 1990, excludes data for California, Indiana, New York, Oklahoma, and South Dakota, which did not report tobacco use during pregnancy.

  • VLBW is birth weight of <1500 g (3 lb, 4 oz), and LBW is birth weight of <2500 g (5 lb, 8 oz).

  • Born before 37 completed weeks of gestation.