TABLE 3

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics, Care-Seeking Behavior, and Access to Health Care Among 149 Children <5 Years Old Newly Diagnosed With TB in the United States in 2005–2006 and Enrolled in Observational Study, by the Child’s Nativity

Participant CharacteristicsAll Cases (N = 149)US Born (N = 122)Foreign Born (N = 27)Risk Ratioa95% CI
n% (n/N)n% (n/N)n% (n/N)
Age
 Younger than 1 y38263630274.281.06–17.22
 Between 1 and 4 y1117486702593referent
Gender
 Male6846544414520.780.39–1.54
 Female815468561348referent
Hispanic
 Yes9966897310373.371.67–6.80
 No503433271763referent
Country or world region of parent’s birthb
 Mexico815472599332.381.15–4.96
 Latin America/South America/Caribbean291925204151.390.52–3.71
 South Asia/East Asia/Pacific191315124150.840.33–2.17
 Sub-Saharan Africa1491084150.600.24–1.48
 United Statesc6400622excluded
Parent’s visa status at US entryd
 Undocumented724863529331.820.84–3.96
 Documented573844361348referent
 Unknown20131512519excluded
Informant speaks English “not at all”
 Yes463137309330.890.43–1.84
 No1036985701867referent
Parent feared child’s deportatione
 Yes15101194150.810.32–2.01
 No1077284692385referent
 Not applicable2114211700excluded
 No opinion646500excluded
Health insurance
 Yes113761008213483.381.76–6.51
 No362422181452referent
Reason for initially seeking health caref
 Screenings and well-baby examinations3725171420740.120.05–0.25
 Symptoms614156465193.051.22–7.61
 Contact investigation or known TB exposure51344940276.511.60–26.38
Source case identified
 Yes795374615194.971.99–12.41
 No704748392281referent
Probable location of TB transmission
 Inside United States1026897805199.553.85–23.66
 Outside United States3624151221780.090.04–0.21
 Exposure risks both inside and outside United States117108142.070.31–13.86
TB site
 Pulmonary only10268836819700.910.43–1.94
 Pulmonary and extrapulmonary211417144150.940.36–2.45
 Extrapulmonary only261722184151.220.46–3.22
Abnormal chest radiograph
 Yes130871048526960.290.04–2.03
 No1711161314referent
 Unknown/not done212200excluded
Specimen positive by culture
 Yes453044361411.251.57–80.38
 Culture negative3826252013480.370.19–0.71
 Not done or unknown6644534313480.810.41–1.60
Tuberculin skin test positive at diagnosis
 Yes12483998125930.620.16–2.37
 No1611141127referent
 Unknown/not done969700excluded
TB symptoms
 Yes9966836816591.360.68–2.71
 No503439321141referent
  • a Risk ratio estimates the relative risk of US-born children compared with foreign-born children (with asymptotic 95% CIs).

  • b At least 1 parent born in given region. When discordant and US-born for 1 parent, foreign region given (n = 22); Mexico given when Mexican and Latin American parents (n = 4).

  • c All children were adopted (adoptee birth countries were Guatemala, China, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, and 2 from the Russian Federation).

  • d At least 1 parent with given visa status. When discordant, undocumented given over documented.

  • e Interview informant was asked: “When you took your child for tuberculosis treatment, were you afraid you or your child might be sent back to the country you came from?”

  • f Reasons for initially seeking health care among adopted children were post adoption check-ups (n = 4), well-baby examinations, and symptoms (n = 1).