TABLE 1

Reported Infant Botulism Cases According to Continent and Country, 1976–2006

LocationTime PeriodTotal No. of Infant Botulism CasesType A, nType B, nOther Type(s), nToxin Type Not Reported or Not Determined
Global total, excluding the United States1976–2006524437561219
Asia
    China17,181986–198920101a
    Japan19211986–2006221432b3
    Taiwan22198710100
Australia2336
    Total1978–20063212151c4a
        New South Wales7
        South Australia9
        Victoria9
        Queensland5
        Northern Territory1
        Unknown1
Europe
    Czech Republic37197910100
    Denmark38,391995–20002001d1e
    France40421983–2006413f00
    Germany43461993–200042002e
    Greece47200611000
    Hungary48,491995–20022001g1e
    Italy49581984–2006264175h0
    Netherlands592000–200531200
    Norway39,601997–199944000
    Spain49,61631985–200292205e
    Sweden641985–20063201i0
    Switzerland65198711000
    United Kingdom66701978–20015221i0
Middle East
    Israel71731994–200620200
    Kuwait74200510001a
    Yemen75198910100
North America
    Canada7681
        Total1979–20062722500
            Alberta1996–20062
            British Columbia1985–19973
            Ontario1979–20063
            Quebec19851
            New Brunswick20061
            Unknown1996–200617
    Mexico
        Baja California200111000
    United States, all states, except Rhode Island1976–200624191079131028j2a
South America
    Argentina82861982–2005366366000
    Chile87891984–199532001a
    Venezuela90200010100
  • — indicates that the distribution of toxin types by state/province was not available.

  • a C botulinum toxin or organisms were identified in feces by polyvalent antitoxin, but the individual toxin type was not reported.

  • b One neurotoxigenic C butyricum type E, 1 type C.

  • cC. botulinum type A and type B were isolated from faecal samples from the infant.”25

  • d “A strain of C. botulinum producing toxin type A and E was identified in stool initially. Further identification of the toxin was not possible.”38

  • e Toxin type was confirmed by polyvalent antitoxin but not typed by monovalent antitoxins.

  • f One type B case was reported to have the characteristics of an “AB” type.42

  • g Neurotoxigenic C baratii type F.

  • h Four neurotoxigenic C butyricum type E, 1 type Ab.

  • i Type Bf.

  • j One type A and B (most likely a Ba or Ab from today's perspective), 14 type Ba, 4 type Bf, 1 type E, and 8 type F cases, in 6 of which C baratii was isolated.