TABLE 4

Prevalence of Osteopenia by Corticosteroid Use and Smoking Status Stratified According to Gender

Variable at Last Follow-up VisitBoysGirlsP, Gender × Variable Interactionb
n% OsteopenicaPbn% OsteopenicaPb
Cumulative OCS courses
    010810.2Reference6624.2ReferenceReference
    >0 and <526813.8.2616821.4.46.28
    ≥515520.6.0211222.3.31.05
    Test for trend.02.33.05
Cumulative ICS, mg
    018914.3Reference11819.5ReferenceReference
    1–43712617.5.508420.2.54.99
    ≥438c21614.4.2314425.7.24.33
    Test for trend.23.23.31
Passive smoking.90.36.70
    No31814.217821.4
    Yes21316.416823.2
Active smoking.22.26.87
    No50314.932021.2
    Yes2817.92634.6
  • a Osteopenia was defined as a z score less than −1 at last follow-up visit. z scores were based on age and gender from longitudinal measurements of BMD from patients with <438 mg cumulative ICS and <5 cumulative courses of OCS.

  • b Adjusted for all variables in table; race and BMD at baseline; and the following variables with value at last follow-up visit: age, Tanner stage (genital stage for boys and breast stage for girls), machine type, fan-beam type, BMI-for-age percentile, and height.

  • c The amount of a full dose (400 μg/day) of budesonide in the CAMP trial for 3 years was 438 mg; patients in the 1- to 437-mg category had a median cumulative ICS amount of 153 mg, whereas patients in the ≥438-mg category had a median dose of 690 mg.