TABLE 3

Developmental Problems at 3-Year Follow-up, According to Chronic Condition, Special Needs, and SHCNs (Ever)

FunctionEver Had a Chronic Health Condition, % (SE)Ever Had Special Need, % (SE)Ever Had SHCN, % (SE)Never Had SHCN (Reference Group), % (SE)Total, % (SE)Total, N
Cognitive problemsa6.0 (1.1)b10.4 (1.8)c7.6 (1.2)d3.4 (0.6)5.7 (0.7)4468
Language problemse16.6 (2.5)31.7 (5.8)f19.2 (2.5)12.9 (2.7)15.8 (1.9)1766
Adaptive problemsg23.5 (3.1)c35.6 (5.2)c24.9 (2.7)c6.9 (1.6)15.5 (1.6)1848
Behavioral problemsh48.4 (2.8)c50.7 (2.6)c47.2 (2.3)c23.0 (1.9)36.2 (1.7)3360
Social skills problemsi12.7 (2.7)j16.3 (2.8)c11.9 (1.8)k6.6 (1.4)9.3 (1.3)2767
Academic problems: mathl10.2 (1.9)m18.6 (1.9)c14.1 (1.4)c3.5 (1.0)9.4 (0.9)2726
Academic problems: readingl7.0 (1.9)n15.2 (2.6)c11.1 (1.8)c2.1 (0.8)7.1 (1.2)2726
Total: any type of problem53.5 (2.4)c62.8 (2.5)c56.1 (2.1)c29.1 (1.8)43.3 (1.5)4739
  • All of the percentages are weighted, ns are unweighted. Developmental problems in each area were defined as an extremely low scores (at or below −2 SD) for all of the measures except behavioral problems, for which a high score represents severity at the clinical range.

  • a Cognitive problems were assessed with the cognitive domain of the Battelle Developmental Inventory for children 0 to 4 years old and with the Kaufmann Brief Intelligence Test for children ≥4 years of age.

  • b P = .0327.

  • c P < .001.

  • d P = .0037.

  • e Language problems were assessed with the Preschool Language Scale-3 for children ≤6 years 11 months old.

  • f P = .0075.

  • g Adaptive problems were assessed with the daily living skills items from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale Screener for children ≤10 years of age.

  • h Behavioral problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form for children aged ≥2 years.

  • i Social skills problems were assessed with the Social Skills Rating System responded to by caregivers of children aged ≥3 years.

  • j P = .0486.

  • k P = .0173.

  • l Math and reading problems were assessed with the Woodcock-McGrew-Werder Mini-Battery of Achievement for children aged ≥6 years.

  • m P = .0064.

  • n P = .0274.