TABLE 4

Associations Between Introduction of Cow Milk/Food Products and the Development of Infants' Sensitization Against Egg, Milk, Peanut, and at Least 1 Inhalant Allergen at Age 2

ParameterSensitization Against Cow MilkSensitization Against Hen Egg
Nn (%)cOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aNn (%)cOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)a
Age of introduction of cow milk products, mob
    0–327050 (19)1.001.0027016 (6)1.001.00
    4–623554 (23)1.31 (0.85–2.02)0.87 (0.40–1.87)23515 (6)1.08 (0.52–2.24)1.10 (0.35–3.51)
    7–925544 (17)0.92 (0.59–1.44)0.60 (0.24–1.50)25512 (5)0.78 (0.36–1.69)0.66 (0.16–2.81)
    >9222 (9)0.44 (0.10–1.94)0.33 (0.06–1.82)224 (18)3.53 (1.07–11.66)3.35 (0.56–20.15)
    P trend.44.10.70.86
Age of introduction of other foods products, mob
    3504 (8)1.001.00501 (2)1.001.00
    4–6709143 (20)2.91 (1.03–8.20)2.64 (0.92–7.59)70944 (6)3.24 (0.44–24.03)3.10 (0.40–24.05)
    >7233 (13)1.73 (0.35–8.43)1.82 (0.35–9.37)232 (9)4.67 (0.40–54.31)5.88 (0.45–76.85)
    P trend.21.23.19.15
Breastfeeding duration (confounder), mo
    Never10418 (17)1.001.001044 (4)1.001.00
    0–322341 (18)1.07 (0.58–1.97)1.17 (0.61–2.26)22316 (7)1.92 (0.63–5.90)2.08 (0.63–6.93)
    4–614833 (22)1.34 (0.71–2.54)1.78 (0.65–4.89)1487 (5)1.22 (0.35–4.26)1.56 (0.27–8.90)
    7–915337 (24)1.49 (0.79–2.79)2.32 (0.81–6.66)15313 (9)2.28 (0.72–7.19)2.76 (0.47–16.11)
    >915519 (12)0.66 (0.33–1.33)1.19 (0.38–3.67)1557 (5)1.18 (0.34–4.12)1.89 (0.28–12.68)
    P trend.55.97.92.54
Sensitization Against PeanutSensitization Against at Least 1 Inhalant Allergen
Age of introduction of cow milk products, mob
    0–327118 (7)1.001.0026121 (8)1.001.00
    4–623513 (6)0.82 (0.39–1.72)0.86 (0.24–3.08)22828 (12)1.60 (0.88–2.90)1.06 (0.34–3.29)
    7–925610 (4)0.57 (0.26–1.26)0.56 (0.12–2.68)24731 (13)1.64 (0.92–2.94)0.81 (0.23–2.85)
    >9221 (5)0.67 (0.09–5.26)0.53 (0.40–7.05)204 (20)2.86 (0.88–9.33)1.07 (0.19–5.91)
    P trend.18.42.05.67
Age of introduction of other foods products, mob
    3501 (2)1.001.00501 (2)1.001.00
    4–671139 (6)2.84 (0.38–21.14)2.55 (0.32–20.12)68377 (11)6.23 (0.85–45.73)6.55 (0.87–49.32)
    >7232 (9)4.67 (0.40–54.31)7.85 (0.58–106.55)236 (26)17.29 (1.94–154.17)20.86 (2.17–200.75)
    P trend.19.11.00.00
Breastfeeding duration (confounder), mo
    Never1045 (5)1.001.001009 (9)1.001.00
    0–322316 (7)1.51 (0.54–4.25)1.68 (0.54–5.30)21015 (7)0.79 (0.33–1.84)0.68 (0.27–1.74)
    4–61487 (5)0.96 (0.30–3.12)1.42 (0.24–8.47)14321 (15)1.74 (0.76–3.97)1.55 (0.37–6.44)
    7–915310 (7)1.36 (0.45–4.09)2.29 (0.37–14.33)14716 (11)1.24 (0.52–2.92)0.92 (0.21–4.06)
    >91554 (3)0.52 (0.14–1.97)1.15 (0.15–9.03)15023 (15)1.83 (0.81–4.14)1.60 (0.36–7.17)
    P trend.24.84.03.61
  • May not add up to total numbers because of missing values.

  • a Based on logistic regression analysis, adjusted for duration of breastfeeding, gender of infant, recruitment group (conventional, alternative lifestyle), maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, maternal age at delivery (in years), maternal education, presence of parental allergic disease, and (older) siblings' atopic history.

  • b The age of introduction of cow milk products and the age of introduction other food products were simultaneously included in the logistic regression analysis, which means that these variable were adjusted for each other.