TABLE 1

Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence, Adapted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition112

Maladaptive pattern of drinking, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by ≥3 of the following occurring at any time in the same 12-mo period:
    Need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect, or markedly diminished effect with continued use of same amount of alcohol
    Characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol, or drinking (or using a closely related substance) to relieve or to avoid withdrawal symptoms
    Drinking in larger amounts or over longer period than intended
    Persistent desire or ≥1 unsuccessful efforts to cut down or to control drinking
    Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of drinking
    Great deal of time spent in activities necessary to obtain, to use, or to recover from effects of drinking
    Continued drinking despite knowledge of having persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely caused or exacerbated by drinking
No duration criterion specified separately but several dependence criteria must occur repeatedly, as specified by duration qualifiers associated with criteria (eg, "persistent" or "continued")