Large-Scale Studies of Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Risk Behaviors

ReferenceRegion/Study/SampleOutcomesPuberty MeasureFinding
Kaltiala-Heino et al5759 (2003, 2001, 2003)Finland/School Health Promotion Study/N = 36 000 14- to 16-y-oldsDepression, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, bulimia, drunkenness, drug use, smoking, truancyAge at menarche, oigarchea (<10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 y)Increased incidence of all problems with decreasing age at puberty in both genders
Williams and Dunlop144 (1999)Britain/N = 99 14-y-old boysQuestionnaire on conduct problems, norm violations, and illegal actsPubertal Development Scale (growth spurt, body hair, skin change, facial hair, voice change)More delinquency in early or late maturers
Wichstrom71 (2000)Norway/Young in Norway Study/N = 9679 12- to 20-y-oldsSuicide, suicide attemptsSelf-perception of pubertal timing (earlier or later than peers)Increased incidence of suicide behavior with early maturation in girls, late maturation in boys
  • a First ejaculation.