Description of Puberty Timing Studies for US Boys

StudyYears Data CollectedGeographic Region; SESRace/Ethnicityof Participants Included in AnalysisStudy Type; Interval AssessedNMarkers Assessed (Method)Age Range, ya
Fels Study; Reynolds and Wines69 (1951 )b1940sYellow Springs, OH; midupper SESNR but known to be 100% whiteL; 6 mo (birthday and half birthday)59Pubic hair and genital development Tanner staging13 (photos)9-21
Guidance Study; Nicolson and Hanley14 (1953)c1930s-1940sBerkeley,CA: high educational levelNR but known to be 100% whiteL; 6 mo92dSex staged (photos)3-19
NHES III; Harlan et al70 (1 9 7 9)'1966-1970Nationally representative; mixed SES499 blackarid 3047 whiteCS3546Pubic hair and genital development Tanner staging (visual examination)12-17
Lee17 (1930)1969-1974Baltimore, MD; upper middle SES94% white; 6% black and Asian_36Pubic hair and genital development Tanner staging (visual examination)9,2-17,5
Bogalusa Heart Study; Foster et al61 (1977)f1973-1974low-average SES1153 white; 676 black?CS51329Pubic hair and genital development Tanner staging (visual examination)5-14
HHANES; Villarreal et al54 (1939)
1932-34Mexican Americans of the Southwest10095 Mexican American5CS704Pubic hair and genital development Tanner staging (visual examination)10-17
Sun etal45 (2002)1933-1994Nationally representative; mixed SES537 white; 798 black; 783 Mexican American'CS2113Pubic hair and genital development Tanner staging (visual examination)3-13
Biro etal25 (1 995)NRGreater Cincinnati, OH area; NR—50% white; —50% black (precise value NR)_515Pubic hair and genital development Tanner staging (visual examination) and testicular volume^10-15
NHANES III; Herman-Giddens et al5 (2001)1933-1994Nationally representative; mixed SES536 white; 797 black; 781 Mexican American'CS2114Pubic hair and genital development Tanner staging (visual examination)3-13
NHES III,and NHANES III;NHES II: 1963-1965;Nationally representative;NHES III: white, black, othersCS3010 (NHES II); 3514 (NHES III);Pubic hair and genital developmentNHES IE 3-11; NHES HE
Karpati etal7 (2002)NHES III: 1966-1970; NHANES III: 1933-1994mixed SESNHANES III: white, black, Mexican American, other'2431 (NHANES III)Tanner staging (visual examination)12-17; NHANES HE 3-13
NHES III; HHANES; NHANES1966-1970 (NHESNationally representative;NHES III: white (36,495);CS3520 NHES III; 717 HHANES;Breast and pubic hair development12-17 (NHES lll-NHANES
III; Sun et al5,5 (2005)lll);1932-1934 (HHANES);1933— 1994 (NHANES III)mixed SES (NHES and NHANES); Hispanic (HHANES)black7; HHANES: 100% Mexican American; NHANES III: white (20.8%), black, Mexican American'1246 NHANES IIITanner staging (visual examination)II comparison); 10-17 (HHANES-NHANES III comparison)
  • a Years, described in whole numbers, indicate the range from the beginning of the first age to the end of the second age (eg, 3-12 is 3.0 years to 12.99 years of age).

  • b For pubic hair development, Reynolds and Wines69 used a 5-stage rating scale that had similar definitions toTanner staging. For genital development, they used 2 separate scales, a 5-stage genital development scale that had some differences from Tanner GD stages, and a 7-stage penis growth rating scale. G2 was defined as “enlargement of scrotum, first reddening and texture change.” G3 was defined as “first'sculpturing'and enlargement of penis.” G4 was defined as “pronounced sculpturing and darkening.” G5 was defined as “essentially adult; reddish brown color, loose penile skin, loss of sharp sculpturing.”

  • c Nicolson and Hanley14 used a 5-stage “sex stage” system of Greulich etal94 that combined assessment of pubic hair and genital development.

  • d The number depends on the stage or outcome assessed and varied between 80 and 92 (eg, n = 92 for sex stage II).

  • e Harlan et al70 data are not included because neither means nor medians were reported.

  • f The Bogalusa Heart Study used an overlapping panel design of multiple cohorts. Foster et al61 analyzed data from 1 CS cohort.

  • g Hispanic white was included in white; Hispanic black was included in black.

  • h Mexican Americans from the Southwest United States from HHANES were included.

  • i White is non-Hispanic white; black is non-Hispanic black.

  • j Biro et al25 assessed testicular volume using a Prader orchidorneter.