Prevalence of DKA at Diagnosis of Diabetes in Youth: Literature Review

Country (Source)Age, yNCompleteness of Record ReviewStudy PeriodDefinition of DKAPrevalence of DKA, %Predictors
United States (current study)0–19282477% population based2002–2004pH <7.3 (venous) or pH <7.25 (arterial) bicarbonate <15 or ICD-9 250.1 or Medical chart diagnosis29 type 1, 10 type 2Younger age, lower family income, under insurance, lower parental education
United States240–1835994% clinic series2002–2003pH <7.3 or bicarbonate ≤15Younger age, lack of insurance
United States230–1813968% hospital series1995–1998pH <7.338Younger age, lack of insurance
United States400–5247Hospital series1990–1999pH <7.3 or bicarbonate <1544
Europe (11 countries)110–14126091% varied by center1989–1994pH <7.326–67 (42)Area of low incidence of type 1 diabetes
Germany140–14212197% population based1987–1997pH <7.3 or bicarbonate <1526Lower socioeconomic status
United Kingdom260–15328Hospital series1987–1996pH ≤7.25 (arterial) or bicarbonate ≤1527Asian minority and age <5 y
United Kingdom100–20230Population based1985–1986pH <7.36 or bicarbonate <2126Younger age
Ireland150–1428372% population based1997–1998pH <7.331