TABLE 2.

Association Between Independent Variables at age 3 to 4 Years and Current Sleep Problems

VariableSleep Problemχ2/zP Value
No (n = 78)Yes (n = 36)
Child behavior
 Adult nurses child to sleep (%)14398.8.003
CBCL subscale scores
 Anxious/Depressed
  Mean (SD)53 (4)53 (5)
  Range50–6850–63−0.35.7
 Withdrawn
  Mean (SD)53 (4)54 (5)
  Range50–6750–66−1.16.2
 Somatic Problems
  Mean (SD)53 (4)55 (6)
  Range50–7050–75−2.34.02
 Aggressive Behavior
  Mean (SD)52 (4)54 (5)
  Range50–6850–70−2.3.02
 Destructive Behavior
  Mean (SD)51 (3)52 (3)
  Range50–6350–61−0.7.5
 Internalizing Behavior
  Mean (SD)45 (10)50 (8)
  Range30–6730–64−2.0.05
 Externalizing behavior
  Mean (SD)45 (8)49 (8)
  Range30–6336–64−2.4.02
Maternal well-being
 EPDS score
  Median58
  Range0–182–20−2.7.008
 Limits to functioning as a result of problems with emotional health (%)
  None — a little8883
  Some — lots12170.6.5
 Limits to functioning as a result of problems with physical health (%)
  None — a little7858
  Some — lots22424.8.03
 Coping
  Mean (SD)3.73.8
  Range2–52–50.09.9
 Degree of stress
  Mean (SD)2.62.5
  Range1–42–40.6.6
Parenting and Family Functioning
 Family Global Functioning Score
  Median1.61.7
  Range1–2.81–2.4−0.2.8
 Marital satisfaction
  Mean (SD)4.74.5
  Range2–61–70.76.4
 Parental agreement on management of child’s behavior (%)
  Never–sometimes1511
  Most of the time5777
  All of the time28124.5.1
 Parental agreement on management of child’s sleep (%)
  Never–sometimes1317
  Most of the time6069
  All of the time27142.1.3
 Partner undermines management (%)
  Never5945
  Sometimes3740
  Most of the time114
  All of the time108.6.04
  • SD indicates standard deviation.