TABLE 1

Medicaid-Reimbursed Psychotropic Medication Use Among Children With ASDs (N = 60 641)

ParameterAny Psychotropic Medication, %≥3 Concurrent Psychotropics, %Psychotropic Medication Class, %
AntidepressantNeurolepticAnxiolyticMood StabilizerSedativeStimulant
Total (n = 60 641)561125311221322
Gender
    Female (n = 13 435)551025281424417
    Male (n = 47 205)561125321120324
Age, ya
    0–2 (n = 1009)180.1226581
    3–5 (n = 10 119)32291278313
    6–11 (n = 27 545)56923291018228
    12–17 (n = 17 164)671734421529323
    18–21 (n = 4804)73203949233969
Ethnicitya
    Black (n = 13 470)4871627816320
    Asian (n = 642)43415221014313
    Latino (n = 4075)50818281117319
    White (n = 30 439)611331341325325
    Other (n = 12 015)55921301120420
Medicaid eligibilitya
    Disabled (n = 43 535)581125321323421
    Poverty (n = 11 240)4472020713223
    Foster Care (n = 4445)712036451331335
    Other (n = 1421)4692424917220
Had an inpatient staya
    Yes (n = 4232)812640542751828
    No (n = 56 409)54924291119322
No. of nonpharmacy ASD claimsa
    1–30 claims (n = 13 506)4351821611119
    31–60 claims (n = 15 537)54924291017223
    61–124 claims (n = 15 773)611328351425424
    ≥125 claims (n = 15 825)631428371730523
ASDsa
    Autism (n = 37 576)53821281320417
    Asperger (n = 23 065)611430351023231
Other diagnosesb
    No other diagnosis (n = 32 760)a3941618813312
    Schizophrenia (n = 929)a944056882859622
    Bipolar (n = 2149)a944859832477440
    Depression (n = 2774)a903569681945436
    Attention deficit (n = 12 445)a872240491430362
    Anxiety (n = 1387)a832358522431430
    Conduct (n = 8559)a822543601840436
Mental retardationa
    Mild (n = 3198)631530391427325
    Moderate (n = 5748)721628452136717
    Severe (n = 4082)711528452034620
  • a Statistically significant at P < .002 based on random-effects model to account for clustering by county and state.

  • b Children with each diagnosis or who saw each type of specialist are compared with those without that diagnosis.