TABLE 1

Covariates and Their Relationship to Movie Smoking Exposure

ParameterMovie Smoking Exposure Quartile
1234
Categorical variables, n (column %)
    No. of students678 (25)678 (25)678 (25)677 (25)
    Age, y
        10–11213 (31)150 (22)121 (18)72 (11)
        12270 (40)233 (34)211 (31)175 (26)
        13133 (20)195 (29)218 (32)240 (35)
        14–1662 (9)100 (15)128 (19)190 (28)
    Gender
        Female455 (67)383 (56)371 (55)249 (37)
        Male223 (33)295 (44)307 (45)428 (63)
    School type
        Gymnasium (SES = mid to high)391 (58)349 (51)344 (51)330 (49)
        Gesamtschule (SES = mixed)a71 (10)70 (10)50 (7)43 (6)
        Realschule (SES = mid)136 (20)146 (22)156 (23)144 (21)
        Hauptschule (SES = low)80 (12)113 (17)128 (19)160 (24)
    Parent smoking
        No423 (62)368 (54)344 (51)337 (50)
        Yes255 (38)310 (46)334 (49)340 (50)
    Sibling smoking
        No620 (91)601 (89)614 (91)567 (84)
        Yes58 (9)77 (11)64 (9)110 (16)
    Friend smoking
        No581 (86)515 (76)463 (68)404 (60)
        Yes97 (14)163 (24)215 (32)273 (40)
    School performance
        Excellent111 (16)87 (13)63 (9)56 (8)
        Good342 (51)312 (46)336 (50)287 (43)
        Average/poor225 (33)279 (41)279 (41)334 (49)
    Favorite tobacco ad
        No657 (97)652 (96)634 (94)603 (89)
        Yes21 (3)26 (4)44 (6)74 (11)
    Tried smoking at follow-up
        No612 (90)576 (85)533 (79)487 (72)
        Yes66 (10)102 (15)145 (21)190 (28)
Continuous variables, mean (SD)
    Sensation seeking/rebelliousnessb0.44 (0.29)0.53 (0.32)0.61 (0.34)0.74 (0.39)
    Parenting stylec2.31 (0.40)2.24 (0.42)2.22 (0.40)2.11 (0.44)
  • a Gesamtschule is an experimental school category. In Gesamtschule schools, there is a mix of pupils from the other 3 types of schools, so these schools tend to have an equal proportion of pupils from the gymnasium, the realschule, and the hauptschule school populations.

  • b Mean: 0.58 (SD: 0.35; range: 0.0–2.6).

  • c Mean: 2.22 (SD: 0.42; range: 0.5–3.0).