VariableSurvey QuestionResponse Categories
    AgeHow old are you?_ years
    GenderAre you a girl or a boy?Girl/boy
    SESAssessed by type of school attended
Social influences
    Parent smoking (yes if either parent smokes)Does your mother smoke?Yes/no/don't know (coded no)
    Sibling smokingDoes your father smoke?Yes/ no/don't know (coded no)
Do any of your brothers or sisters smoke?Yes/no/don't know (coded no)/Don't have any brothers or sisters (coded no)
    Friend smokingHow many of your friends smoke?None/some/most/ all
Adolescent characteristics
    School performanceHow would you describe your grades last year?Excellent/good/ average/below average
    Tobacco marketing receptivityName your favorite cigarette advertisement.Open-ended answer, with the instruction “if you have no favorite, write none”
    Sensation seeking/rebelliousness (12-item index, range 0–3, Cronbach's α = .77)I like to do scary thingsNot like me
I get bored being with the same friends all the timeSort of like me
I like to do dangerous thingsA lot like me
I often think there is nothing to doJust like me
I like to listen to loud music
I get in trouble in school
I argue a lot with other kids
I do things my parents wouldn't want me to do
I do what my teachers tell me to do
I sometimes take things that don't belong to me
I argue with my teachers
I like to break the rules
    Parenting style20 (8-item index, range 0–3, Cronbach's α = .64)She makes me feel better when I am upsetNot like her
She listens to what I have to saySort of like her
She is too busy to talk to meA lot like her
She wants to hear about my problemsJust like her
She has rules that I must follow
She tells me what time I have to be home
She asks me what I do with my friends
She knows where I am after school
  • SES was not measured directly. Instead, school type was used as a proxy. Schleswig-Holstein has a school system with 4 types of schools, and type of school is strongly associated with SES. The hauptschule recruits pupils from low SES, the realschule recruits students with mid-SES, the gymnasium recruits students with mid- to high SES background, and the gesamtschule is a mixed form.